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Research Papers

Parameter Study of Three-Dimensional Printing Graphene Oxide Based on Directional Freezing

[+] Author and Article Information
Feng Zhang, Feng Yang

Department of Industrial
and Systems Engineering,
University at Buffalo,
The State University of New York,
Buffalo, NY 14260

Dong Lin

Department of Industrial
and Manufacturing Systems Engineering,
Kansas State University,
Manhattan, KS 66506

Chi Zhou

Department of Industrial
and Systems Engineering,
University at Buffalo,
The State University of New York,
Buffalo, NY 14260
e-mail: chizhou@buffalo.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 17, 2016; final manuscript received August 28, 2016; published online October 6, 2016. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(3), 031016 (Oct 06, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1449; doi: 10.1115/1.4034669 History: Received August 17, 2016; Revised August 28, 2016

Graphene is one of the most promising carbon nanomaterial due to its excellent electrical, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. However, it is still very challenging to unlock its exotic properties and widely adopt it in real-world applications. In this paper, we introduce a new three-dimensional (3D) graphene structure printing approach with pure graphene oxide (GO) material, better interlayer bonding, and complex architecture printing capability. Various parameters related to this novel process are discussed in detail in order to improve the printability, reliability, and accuracy. We have shown that the print quality largely depends on the duty cycle of print head, applied pressure, and traveling velocity during printing. A set of printed samples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique along with the optimal parameter settings. The proposed process proves to be a promising 3D printing technique for fabricating multiscale nanomaterial structures. The theory revealed and parameters investigated herein are expected to significantly advance the knowledge and understanding of the fundamental mechanism of the proposed directional freezing-based 3D nano printing process. Furthermore, the outcome of this research has the potential to open up a new avenue for fabricating multifunctional nanomaterial objects.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The schematic drawing and the physical setup of the 3D printing system for graphene aerogel fabrication

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Fig. 2

Graphene aerogel fabrication process

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Fig. 3

Dynamic viscosity of GO solution with different concentrations

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Fig. 4

A deposited line with circular profile

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Fig. 5

The side view of two stacked lines

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Fig. 6

Line width versus traveling velocity

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Fig. 7

Line width versus traveling velocity and frequency

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Fig. 8

Discontinuous printing line

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Fig. 9

Line width versus duty cycle

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Fig. 10

Syringe with applied pressure

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Fig. 11

Line width versus pressure

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Fig. 12

Cone shape of the jetting profile

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Fig. 13

Effect of nozzle–substrate distance on line width

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Fig. 14

Parameter study on various GO concentrations

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Fig. 15

Various printed graphene oxide parts

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Fig. 16

GO aerogels: (a) 2.5D grid with different strut thicknesses, (b) 3D GO aerogel periodic lattice of different size, (c) GO aerogel on catkin, and (d) electrical conductivity test

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