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Research Papers

Loading–Unloading Cycles of Three-Dimensional-Printed Built Bimaterial Structures With Ceramic and Elastomer

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi-Tang Kao

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Texas A&M University,
3123 TAMU,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: yitangkao@tamu.edu

Ying Zhang

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Texas A&M University,
3123 TAMU,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: zhangying0711@tamu.edu

Jyhwen Wang

Engineering Technology and Industrial
Distribution Department,
Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
3367 TAMU,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: jwang@tamu.edu

Bruce L. Tai

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Texas A&M University,
3123 TAMU,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: btai@tamu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 17, 2016; final manuscript received August 31, 2016; published online October 18, 2016. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(4), 041006 (Oct 18, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1448; doi: 10.1115/1.4034668 History: Received August 17, 2016; Revised August 31, 2016

This paper studies the loading–unloading behaviors of a three-dimensional (3D)-printing built bimaterial structure consisting of an open-cellular plaster frame filled with silicone. The combination of the plaster (ceramic phase) and silicone (elastomer phase) is hypothesized to possess a nonlinearly elastic property and a better ductility. Four-point bending tests with programmed cycles of preceding deformations were conducted. The results show that there exists a linear–nonlinear transition when the bending deflection is around 2 mm in the first cycle bending. As the cycle proceeds, this linear–nonlinear transition is found at the maximum deflection of the previous cycle; meanwhile, the bending stiffness degrades. It is believed that the occurrence of microcracks inside the plaster frame is the mechanism behind the phenomenon. The silicone provides a strong network suppressing the abrupt crack propagation in a brittle material. The effects of the frame structure and plaster–silicone ratio were also compared. A high plaster content and large cell size tend to have a higher stiffness and obvious linear to nonlinear transition while it also has more significant stiffness degradation.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sample design: (a) a unit cubic cell, (b) the frame based on the unit cells of 6.5 mm (L), and (c) 3.25 mm (S)

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Fig. 2

Completed composite samples with two composition ratios (75% and 50%) and two types of structures (L and S)

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Fig. 3

Averaged force–deflection curves for the composite samples

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup for four-point bending

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Fig. 5

Results for (a) 75%L, (b) 75%S, (c) 50%L, and (d) 50%S. Blue—cycle 1, red—cycle 2, green—cycle 3, and purple—cycle 4. Solid line and dashed line represent two repeated test (see online figure for color).

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Fig. 6

Changes of stiffness in each cycle for all four samples

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Fig. 7

Explanation of linear and nonlinear behaviors

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Fig. 8

Tested samples with cracks visible in the brittle phase (a) 75%L, (b) 75%S, (c) 50%L, and (d) 50%S

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Fig. 9

Bending stiffness of pure plaster with different structures

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