Technical Brief

Joining Dissimilar Materials Using Friction Stir Scribe Technique

[+] Author and Article Information
Piyush Upadhyay

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland 99352, WA
e-mail: piyush.upadhyay@pnnl.gov

Yuri Hovanski, Saumyadeep Jana, Leonard S. Fifield

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland 99352, WA

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 17, 2016; final manuscript received August 23, 2016; published online October 3, 2016. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(3), 034501 (Oct 03, 2016) (3 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1436; doi: 10.1115/1.4034629 History: Received August 17, 2016; Revised August 23, 2016

Development of a robust and cost-effective method of joining dissimilar materials could provide a critical pathway to enable widespread use of multimaterial designs and components in mainstream industrial applications. The use of multimaterial components such as steel-aluminum and aluminum-polymer would allow design engineers to optimize material utilization based on service requirements and could often lead to weight and cost reductions. However, producing an effective joint between materials with vastly different thermal, microstructural, and deformation responses is highly problematic using conventional joining and/or fastening methods. This is especially challenging in cost sensitive, high volume markets that largely rely on low cost joining solutions. Friction stir scribe (FSS) technology was developed to meet the demands of joining materials with drastically different properties and melting regimes. The process enables joining of light metals like magnesium and aluminum to high temperature materials like steel and titanium. Viable joints between polymer composites and metal can also be made using this method. This paper will present the state of the art, progress made, and challenges associated with this innovative derivative of friction stir welding (FSW) in reference to joining dissimilar metals and polymer/metal combinations.

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Hovanski, Y. , Grant, G. J. , Jana, S. , and Mattlin, K. F. , 2013, “ Friction Stir Welding Tool and Process for Welding Dissimilar Materials,” U.S. Patent No. 8,434,661.
Upadhyay, P. , Hovanski, Y. , Fifield, L. S. , and Simmons, K. L. , 2015, “ Friction Stir Lap Welding of Aluminum—Polymer Using Scribe Technology,” Friction Stir Welding and Processing VIII, R. S. Mishra, M. W. Mahoney, Y. Sato, and Y. Hovanski , eds., Wiley, New York, pp. 153–160.
Jana, S. , Hovanski, Y. , Grant, G. J. , and Mattlin, K. , 2011, “ Effect of Tool Feature on the Joint Strength of Dissimilar Friction Stir Lap Welds,” Friction Stir Welding and Processing VI, R. S. Mishra, M. W. Mahoney, Y. Sato, and Y. Hovanski , eds., Wiley, New York, pp. 205–211.


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Fig. 1

Schematic of FSS tool as it plunges into a dissimilar material lap joint (above). FSS tools (below).

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Fig. 2

Representative FSS welded joint made between carbon fiber-reinforced polyamide (LCF50-PA66) and aluminum

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Fig. 3

Tensile sample from dissimilar welds made between AZ31 and 0.8 mm thick steel sheet

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Fig. 4

Representative joints made between different steel and aluminum combinations using the friction stir scribe technique

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Fig. 5

Joint between AA6022 and mild steel. The graph shows load per unit weld length versus extension for FSS joint samples obtained over the length of the joint. Top left: an E8 sub-size tensile sample for the mild steel base metal (adjacent to ruler) is shown for side-by-side comparison with the FSS joint. Top right: a representative FSS joint sample with locations of final fractures indicated by dotted boxes. The image below the graph shows a typical lap shear test setup.

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Fig. 6

Representative FSS joint cross sections for welds made between aluminum and mild steel

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Fig. 7

Lateral (X, Y) and normal (Z) forces experienced by the FSS tool during the process plotted against the tool position. Z position of the tool is also shown.

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Fig. 8

Load per unit weld length for FSS joint between cast aluminum and rolled steel



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