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Research Papers

Simultaneous Consideration of Unit Manufacturing Processes and Supply Chain Activities for Reduction of Product Environmental and Social Impacts

[+] Author and Article Information
Ahmed J. Alsaffar

KoCoS Messtechnik AG,
Suedring 42,
Korbach 34497, Germany
e-mail: aalsaffar@kocos.com

Kamyar Raoufi

School of Mechanical, Industrial, and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
204 Rogers Hall,
Corvallis, OR 97331
e-mail: raoufik@oregonstate.edu

Kyoung-Yun Kim

Department of Industrial
and Systems Engineering,
Wayne State University,
4815 Fourth Street,
Detroit, MI 48202
e-mail: kykim@eng.wayne.edu

Gül E. Okudan Kremer

Department of Industrial
and Manufacturing Engineering,
School of Engineering Design,
The Pennsylvania State University,
State College, PA 16802
e-mail: gkremer@psu.edu

Karl R. Haapala

School of Mechanical, Industrial, and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
204 Rogers Hall,
Corvallis, OR 97331
e-mail: Karl.Haapala@oregonstate.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 18, 2016; final manuscript received August 14, 2016; published online September 6, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Moneer Helu.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(10), 101009 (Sep 06, 2016) (18 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1047; doi: 10.1115/1.4034481 History: Received January 18, 2016; Revised August 14, 2016

Interest in assessing the sustainability performance of manufacturing processes and systems during product design is increasing. Prior work has investigated approaches for quantifying and reducing impacts across the product life cycle. Energy consumption and carbon footprint are frequently adopted and investigated environmental performance metrics. However, challenges persist in concurrent consideration of environmental, economic, and social impacts resulting from manufacturing processes and supply chain networks. Companies are striving to manage their manufacturing networks to improve environmental and social performance, in addition to economic performance. In particular, social responsibility has gained visibility as a conduit to competitive advantage. Thus, a framework is presented for improving environmental and social performance through simultaneous consideration of manufacturing processes and supply chain activities. The framework builds upon the unit manufacturing process modeling method and is demonstrated for production of bicycle pedal components. For the case examined, it is found that unit manufacturing processes account for 63–97% of supply chain carbon footprint when air freight transport is not used. When air freight transport is used for heavier components, transportation-related energy consumption accounts for 78–90% of supply chain carbon footprint. Similarly, from a social responsibility perspective, transportation-related activities account for 73–99% of supply chain injuries/illnesses, and days away from work when air freight transport is used. Manufacturing activities dominate the impacts on worker health when air freight transport is not used, leading to 59–99% of supply chain injuries/illnesses, and days away from work. These results reiterate that simultaneous consideration of environmental and social impacts of manufacturing and supply chain activities is needed to inform decision making in sustainable product manufacturing.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

A framework to integrate environmental and social impact assessment into manufacturing process flow and supply chain network selection

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Fig. 2

Alternative supply chain network configurations for a product

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Fig. 3

Input and output modeling for unit manufacturing processes and linking of models for manufacturing process flow

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Fig. 4

Bicycle pedal assembly considered

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Fig. 5

Disassembled components of the bicycle pedal considered

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Fig. 6

Bicycle pedal body plate

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Fig. 7

Supply chain alternatives (up) SC3a and (down) SC3b for pedal body plate production

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Fig. 8

Carbon footprint of supply chain alternative for (left) SC3a and (right) SC3b

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Fig. 9

Transportation distance and resultant carbon footprint for alternative SC3a

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Fig. 10

Transportation distance and resultant carbon footprint for alternative SC3b

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Fig. 11

Resultant carbon footprint from manufacturing processes for supply chain alternatives SC3a and SC3b

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Fig. 12

Process energy use and carbon footprint for (left) SC3a (Columbus, OH) and (right) SC3b (Austin, TX)

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Fig. 13

Manufacturing process energy and carbon footprint for (left) SC3a and (right) SC3b

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Fig. 14

Carbon footprint for supply chain alternatives SC3a and SC3b

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Fig. 15

Carbon footprint for alternative supply chain scenarios for each pedal component

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Fig. 16

Normalized carbon footprint for alternative (left) manufacturing processes and (right) transportation activities for each pedal component

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Fig. 17

Normalized carbon footprint for best and worst supply chain alternatives of the pedal components

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Fig. 18

Relative estimated carbon footprint for the best and worst assembly scenarios

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Fig. 19

Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses (NOI) from transportation and manufacturing processes for supply chain alternatives SCa and SCb

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Fig. 20

Days away from work (DAW) due to transportation and manufacturing processes for supply chain alternatives SCa and SCb

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