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Review Article

Open-Cell Metallic Porous Materials Obtained Through Space Holders—Part I: Production Methods. A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Lenko Stanev

Institute of Metal Science,
Equipment and Technology,
Center of Hydro- and Aerodynamics,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
67 Shipchenski Prohod,
Sofia 1574, Bulgaria
e-mail: stanev@ims.bas.bg

Mihail Kolev

Institute of Metal Science,
Equipment and Technology,
Center of Hydro- and Aerodynamics,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
67 Shipchenski Prohod,
Sofia 1574, Bulgaria
e-mail: mihail1kolev@gmail.com

Boris Drenchev

Institute of Electrochemistry and
Energy Systems,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
Acad. G. Bonchev Street, Bl. 10,
Sofia 1113, Bulgaria
e-mail: bdrenchev@abv.bg

Ludmil Drenchev

Institute of Metal Science,
Equipment and Technology,
Center of Hydro- and Aerodynamics,
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,
67 Shipchenski Prohod,
Sofia 1574, Bulgaria
e-mail: ljudmil.d@ims.bas.bg

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 30, 2016; final manuscript received August 5, 2016; published online November 21, 2016. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(5), 050801 (Nov 21, 2016) (21 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1192; doi: 10.1115/1.4034439 History: Received March 30, 2016; Revised August 05, 2016

This article presents a review of current methods for production of metallic open-cell porous materials through space holders. The methods are divided into two major groups: on the basis of sintering and using liquid phase processing. Details about technologies are given, and their relations to structure parameters of obtained materials are discussed. Methods with 11 different space holders are described. The space holders could be metallic or nonmetallic (organic and inorganic) materials which could be leached or burned depending on removal technique. It is concluded that the flexible application of different space holders offers opportunities for obtaining large variety of metallic porous structures. A new line of development should be elaboration of complex techniques for production of porous structure with graded pore size and/or porosity which will meet various engineering requirements and will open new possibilities for applications as functional and structural elements. The next part of this work is devoted to the structure, the properties, and application of the open-cells porous materials obtained through space holders.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Macrostructure of different types of porous materials: (a) Al-based conventional foam [8] and Pb-60 vol. % fly ash syntactic foam [9], (b) open cells aluminum foam obtained by replication [10], and (c) longitudinal and transverse cross section of copper gasar [11]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 2

Chart of techniques for open porosity structure obtained by spacers

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Fig. 3

Micrographs of: (a) electrolytic Cu powders and (b) NaCl particles used in preparation of porous Cu, after [21]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 4

SEM images of starting materials: (a) Cu powder particles and (b) NaCl powder particles, after Ref. [23]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 5

Schematic presentation of FPC process for fabricating Cu foam, after Ref. [23]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 6

Fabrication of Ti-foam by sintering: (a) flow sheet for making open cell Ti-foam; (b) top view of compacted and sintered pallets; and (c) side view of the pallets, after Ref. [25]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 7

(a) SEM images for pure Ti powder and (b) SEM images for sodium chloride, after Ref. [26]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 8

Outline of different designs of longitudinal porosity gradients realized by different NaCl percentages, after Ref. [27]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 9

Schematic representation of Fe(Al) foam fabrication steps, after Ref. [29]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 10

Optical image of NaCl preform: (a) the whole preform after sintering and (b) the magnified part of the preform, after Ref. [31]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 11

Optical image of ZA22 foams: (a) the whole foams and (b) open cell, after Ref. [31]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 12

A schematic representation of FeAl foam fabrication process, after Ref. [32]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 13

Components to production process: (a) photograph of spherical salt–flour particles; (b) morphology of a single salt-flour particle; and (c) FE-SEM image of Mg foam obtained, after Ref. [34]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 14

SEM micrographs at different magnifications of open-porosity aluminum foam obtained through replication, after Ref. [38]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 15

Optical images of foams obtained: (a) ingot with high porous core of 0.61 porosity and dense outer region; (b) test specimen of open-cell AlSi10Mg foam with 0.61 porosity; (c) input with high porous core of 0.71 porosity and dense outer region; and (d) test specimen of open-cell AlSi10Mg foam with 0.71 porosity, after Ref. [43]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 16

Picture of space holder and MgSO4 foam structure: (a) SEM image of as obtained MgSO4 powder; (b) micrograph of metal structure in the foam where the white arrow indicates the presence of primary silver dendrites, after Ref. [44]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 17

Components for Al/carbamide powders for preparation of green compact: (a) spherical carbamide granulates, (b) granulates of different sizes (I) 2.5–3 mm, (II) 2 mm, (III) 1.5–2 mm, and (IV) 1–1.5 mm, and (c) SEM image of aluminum powder particles, after Ref. [50]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 18

Components for production of Al–Al2O3 composite foam: SEM image of (a) Al and (b) Al2O3 powders; (c) carbamide particles as space-holder material, after Ref. [54]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 19

Images of: (a) green compact and (b) foam produced, after Ref. [56]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 20

Morphology of the starting powders: (a) Mg and (b) TiNi, after Ref. [58]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 21

Schematic diagram illustrating fabrication of porous titanium with controlled porous structure and net shape, after Ref. [59]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 22

Scheme of Ti foam preparation with sugar space holder, after Ref. [62]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 23

SEM images of: (a) bulk Ti foam obtained from angular particles and (b) Ti foam obtained from spherical particles, after Ref. [63]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 24

SEM images of porous titanium with different wt. % spaces: (a) 40%; (b) 50%; (c) 60%; and (d) 70%, after Ref. [64]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 25

SEM micrographs of powders (a) −BM3; (b) −BM15; and (c) −BM30, after Ref. [65]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 26

Morphology of porous Ti–7.5Mo fabricated from ball-milled powders and sintered at 1100 °C for different times. (a) BM3, sintered for 10 h; (b) BM3, sintered for 15 h; (c) BM3, sintered for 20 h; (d) BM15, sintered for 10 h; and (e) BM30, sintered for 10 h, after Ref. [65]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 27

SEM images of copper powder: (a) as received and (b) after mechanically activation in a planetary ball mill, after Ref. [66]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 28

Schematic presentation of lost carbonate sintering process, after Ref. [66]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 29

SEM images of: (a) spherical titanium powders and (b) spherical starch powder, after Ref. [68]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 30

Pore morphology of fabricated foams: (a) 79% open porosity and (b) 73% open porosity, after Ref. [68]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 31

Scanning electron micrographs of feedstock components: (a) Ti64; (b) 10 μm PMMA; and (c) 41 μm PMMA, after Ref. [69]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 32

Schematic presentation of PIM method for production of Ti64 porous structures employing PMMA space holder, after Ref. [69]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 33

SEM registered microstructure of sintered Ti64 samples containing different percentage of spacer (average particle size 41 μm) into feedstock: (a) 0%; (b) 50%; (c) 60%; and (d) 70%, after Ref. [69]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 34

SEM micrographs of Ti powders: (a) fine powders (<45 μm) and (b) coarse powders (<125 μm), after Ref. [70]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 35

Мorphologies of lamellar porous alumina samples with centrosymmetric structures fabricated with different alumina contents: (a) 20, (b) 30, and (c) 40 vol. %, after Ref. [71]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 36

Assembled (left) and sintered (right) space-holder scaffold constructed with orthogonally stacked high-carbon steel wires with a diameter of 400 μm, after Ref. [73]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 37

Structural characteristics of NiTi porous material: (a) optical micrograph of cross section of NiTi–steel composite, showing TiC and Ti-depleated layer sat the interface between the densified NiTi powders and a high-carbon steel wire space holder; (b) SEM 3D view showing orthogonally intersecting microchannels; and (c) SEM micrograph detailed view showing ellipsoidal cross sections. The hot-pressing axis is marked with a thick arrow and predensification wire cross sections are indicated with dashed circles, after Ref. [73]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 38

Schematic representation of unidirectional reverse freeze casting: (a) two-dimensional model of RFC; (b) three-dimensional model of unidirectional camphene growth; and (c) three-dimensional model of migration of Ti powders, after Ref. [77]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 39

Cross-sectional images of porous structures obtained for different casting times: (a) 20 h, columnar structure (porosity 74%); (b) 24 h, co-existing columnar and lamellar structures (porosity 69%); (c) 36 h, most columnar structures have transformed into lamellar structures (porosity 59%); and (d) 48 h, lamellar structure (porosity 51%), after Ref. [77]. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier.)

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