Research Papers

Experimental Investigation and Numerical Analysis of Mechanical Ruling for an Aluminum-Coated Diffraction Grating

[+] Author and Article Information
Baoqing Zhang

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242;
College of Mechanical and
Electrical Engineering,
Changchun University of Science
and Technology,
7089 Weixing Road,
Changchun 130022, China;
Changchun Institute of Optics,
Fine Mechanics and Physics,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
3888 Dongnanhuda Road,
Changchun 130033, China

Qinghua Wang, Ninggang Shen

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242

Hongtao Ding

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
University of Iowa,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: hongtao-ding@uiowa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 8, 2016; final manuscript received July 5, 2016; published online August 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(2), 021003 (Aug 24, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1153; doi: 10.1115/1.4034282 History: Received March 08, 2016; Revised July 05, 2016

The mechanical ruling process using a diamond tool is an important method for fabrication of low-density diffraction gratings. In mechanical ruling, a deposited film of aluminum or gold is mechanically burnished by the diamond tool to form equally spaced and high-quality grooves. The goal of this work is to evaluate the effects of Al film properties and ruling tool loading conditions on the resultant groove formation. The microstructure of the Al film is first studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties of the Al film are measured by nano-indentation and scratch tests. Mechanical ruling experiments are then carried out on a 10.5 μm thick Al film under various ruling loads ranging from 20 to 105 g. The groove geometry is investigated, and the tool wear of the diamond tool is inspected after the mechanical ruling tests. Finally, a three-dimensional (3D) thermomechanical-coupled finite-element (FE) model is developed to predict the deformation and temperature fields for the micron-scale groove formation by incorporating the Al film properties and a strain-gradient plasticity for modeling the size effect. Multiruling pass simulations are performed to analyze the groove formation under different loading conditions. Through comparison of simulation results with experimental measurement, this model is demonstrated as a useful numerical tool for modeling the mechanical ruling process using a diamond tool.

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Fig. 1

SEM micrographs of the Al film: (a) side view, (b) zoom-in of the side view, and (c) top surface

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Fig. 2

XRD patterns of the fabricated Al film

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Fig. 3

Load–indentation response curve for various indentation depths

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Fig. 4

Nano-indentation results

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Fig. 5

Springback measurement from nano-indentation tests: (a) springback and (b) relative springback

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Fig. 6

Ruling tool and workpiece: (a) schematic of the mechanical ruling process, (b)diamond tool, and (c) a fabricated diffraction grating

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Fig. 7

SEM micrograph of fabricated grating grooves with the designated groove form variables labeled

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Fig. 8

Optical microscopy of grating grooves: (a) beginning, (b) middle, and (c) end of grating grooves

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Fig. 9

Grating grooves: (a) 3D profile of grating grooves and (b) cross section area comparison of the grating grooves

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Fig. 10

Groove profiles subjected to various ruling loads: (a) 20 g, (b) 40 g, (c) 70 g, (d) 80 g, (e) 105 g, and (f) 115 g

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Fig. 11

Tool wear after mechanical ruling of an area of 410 × 614 mm2

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Fig. 12

Finite-element model configuration (with the glass substrate hidden from the view)

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Fig. 13

Three-dimensional groove formation and strain distribution for different ruling passes of ruling load 70 g: (a) first pass, (b) third pass, (c) first pass, (d) second pass, and (e) third pass

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Fig. 14

Simulated flow stress, strain rate, and temperature under a ruling load of 70 g. First pass: (a) Von Mises stress, (b) effective strain rate, and (c) temperature. Third pass: (d) Von Mises stress, (e) effective strain rate, and (f) temperature.

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Fig. 15

Simulated and measured groove profiles under various ruling loads (with grating form defects circled): (a) 20 g, (b) 40 g, (c) 70 g, and (d) 105 g

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Fig. 16

Groove depth and tool normal pressure under various ruling loads: (a) groove depth and (b) tool contact pressure




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