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Design Innovation Paper

An Inexpensive, Portable Machine to Facilitate Testing and Characterization of the Friction Stir Blind Riveting Process

[+] Author and Article Information
A Zachary Trimble

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hawaii,
Holmes Hall 302,
2540 Dole Street,
Honolulu, HI 96822
e-mail: atrimble@hawaii.edu

Brennan Yammamoto

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hawaii,
Holmes Hall 302,
2540 Dole Street,
Honolulu, HI 96822
e-mail: brennane@hawaii.edu

Jingjing Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hawaii,
Holmes Hall 302,
2540 Dole Street,
Honolulu, HI 96822
e-mail: lj8@hawaii.edu

Manuscript received November 15, 2015; final manuscript received June 23, 2016; published online July 28, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Rajiv Malhotra.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(9), 095001 (Jul 28, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1579; doi: 10.1115/1.4034158 History: Received November 15, 2015; Revised June 23, 2016

The expanding use of materials that are difficult to join with traditional techniques drives an urgent need, in a wide array of industries, to develop and characterize production capable joining processes. Friction stir blind riveting (FSBR) is such a process. However, full adoption of FSBR requires more complete characterization of the process. The relatively inexpensive, portable FSBR machine discussed here facilitates in situ X-ray imaging of the FSBR process, which will enhance the ability of researchers to understand and improve the FSBR process. Real-time, unobstructed, angular X-ray access drives the functional requirements and design considerations of the machine. The acute angular access provided by the machine necessitates tradeoffs in stiffness and Abbe errors. An error budget quantifies the effect of the various trade-offs on likely sensitive directions and relationships. Additionally, the machine motivates more test parameters important to machine designers (e.g., parallelism and runout) that have not yet been explored in the literature. Ultimately, a machine has been developed, which has a single rotational axis that translates parallel to the rotational axis, can be built for under $12,000, has a mass of less than 110 kg, measures 915 mm × 254 mm × 624 mm, has a rotational speed range of 400–8000 RPM, has a feed rate range of 0.1–200 mm/min, can be installed on most test benches, has total rivet runout of 0.1 mm, has plunge and rotational axis parallelism of less than 0.1 deg, and has a plunge axis repeatability of better than 2 μ m over a 10 mm range.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Some rivet-joining methods for aluminum alloys: (a) solid rivet, (b) blind rivet, and (c) self-piercing riveting

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Fig. 2

The FSBR manufacturing process

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Fig. 3

Side-view schematic of the machine

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the machine as viewed along the path of the measurement beam (shown at α=60deg). Note the direct angular access to the point-of-contact of the rivet and test material.

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Fig. 5

Top view of the machine showing the path of the X-ray measurement beam relative to the workpiece. Pictured here, the angle the beam forms with the workpiece face is α=60deg.

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Fig. 6

Actual image of the assembled machine

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Fig. 8

Machine structural loop and coordinate reference frames for each point of interest. In order from the tool to the part: R8 collet (r), R32 collet (1), spindle BT40 taper (2), spindle bearings (3), linear bearings (4), lead screw bearing block (5), workpiece upright (6), and workpiece mount (p).

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Fig. 7

The no obstruction zone, formed by the angle, α, between the X-ray beam, and the plane of the workpiece

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Fig. 10

Images of two sample FSBR rivets performed by the machine. (a) Aluminum-Aluminum joint performed by the FSBR machine and (b) magnesium-aluminum joint performed by the FSBR machine where the feed-rate to spindle speed ratio was too high.

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Fig. 9

Total indicated runout measured at the tool

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