Technical Brief

A Foil-Based Additive Manufacturing Technology for Metal Parts

[+] Author and Article Information
Chen Chen, Yiyu Shen

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
Rolla, MO 65409

Hai-Lung Tsai

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
Rolla, MO 65409
e-mail: tsai@mst.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 29, 2016; final manuscript received June 17, 2016; published online August 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Z. J. Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(2), 024501 (Aug 24, 2016) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1188; doi: 10.1115/1.4034139 History: Received March 29, 2016; Revised June 17, 2016

In this paper, the method, system setup, and procedure of a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology for manufacturing three-dimensional (3D) metal parts are introduced. Instead of using metal powders as in most commercial AM technologies, the new method uses metal foils as feed stock. The procedure consists of two alternating processes: foil-welding by a high-power continuous-wave (CW) laser and foil-cutting by a Q-switched ultraviolet (UV) laser. The foil-welding process involves two subprocesses: laser spot welding and laser raster-scan welding. The reason for using two lasers is to achieve simultaneously the high-speed and high-precision manufacturing. The results on laser foil-welding and foil-cutting show that complete and strong welding bonds can be achieved with determined parameters, and that clean and no-burr/distortion cut of foil can be obtained. Several 3D AISI 1010 steel parts fabricated by the proposed AM technology are presented, and the microhardness and tensile strength of the as-fabricated parts are both significantly greater than those of the original foil.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wohlers, T. T. , and Gornet, T. , 2012, “ History of Additive Manufacturing,” Wohlers Associates, Fort Collins, CO.
Atzeni, E. , and Salmi, A. , 2012, “ Economics of Additive Manufacturing for End-Usable Metal Parts,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 62(9–12), pp. 1147–1155. [CrossRef]
Gu, D. D. , Meiners, W. , Wissenbach, K. , and Poprawe, R. , 2012, “ Laser Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Components: Materials, Processes and Mechanisms,” Int. Mater. Rev., 57(3), pp. 133–164. [CrossRef]
Uriondo, A. , Esperon-Miguez, M. , and Perinpanayagam, S. , 2015, “ The Present and Future of Additive Manufacturing in the Aerospace Sector: A Review of Important Aspects,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part G, 229(11), pp. 2132–2147. [CrossRef]
Vaezi, M. , Seitz, H. , and Yang, S. F. , 2013, “ A Review on 3D Micro-Additive Manufacturing Technologies,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 67(5–8), pp. 1721–1754. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y. , Leu, M. C. , Mazumder, J. , and Donmez, A. , 2015, “ Additive Manufacturing: Current State, Future Potential, Gaps and Needs, and Recommendations,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(1), p. 014001. [CrossRef]
Huang, S. H. , Liu, P. , Mokasdar, A. , and Hou, L. , 2013, “ Additive Manufacturing and Its Societal Impact: A Literature Review,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 67(5–8), pp. 1191–1203. [CrossRef]
Frazier, W. E. , 2014, “ Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 23(6), pp. 1917–1928. [CrossRef]
Kumar, S. , and Pityana, S. , 2011, “ Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing of Metals,” AIP Conf. Proc., 227, pp. 92–95.
Ghariblu, H. , and Rahmati, S. , 2014, “ New Process and Machine for Layered Manufacturing of Metal Parts,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Wong, K. V. , and Hernandez, A. , 2012, “ A Review of Additive Manufacturing,” ISRN Mech. Eng., 2012, p. 208760. [CrossRef]
Hardjadinata, G. , and Doumanidis, C. C. , 2001, “ Rapid Prototyping by Laser Foil Bonding and Cutting: Thermomechanical Modeling and Process Optimization,” J. Manuf. Processes, 3(2), pp. 108–119. [CrossRef]
Prechtl, M. , Otto, A. , and Geiger, M. , 2005, “ Rapid Tooling by Laminated Object Manufacturing of Metal Foil,” Adv. Mater. Res., 6–8, pp. 303–312. [CrossRef]
Steen, M. W. , and Mazumder, J. , 2010, Laser Material Processing, Springer, London, Chap. 4.
Xie, J. , and Kar, A. , 1999, “ Laser Welding of Thin Sheet Steel With Surface Oxidation,” Weld. J., 78(10), pp. 343–348.
Okamoto, Y. , Gillner, A. , Olowinsky, A. , Gedicke, J. , and Uno, Y. , 2008, “ Fine Micro-Welding of Thin Stainless Steel Sheet by High Speed Laser Scanning,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng., 3(2), pp. 95–99. [CrossRef]
Abe, N. , Funada, Y. , and Ishide, M. , 2003, “ Micro-Welding of Thin Foil With Direct Diode Laser,” Fourth International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication, Vol. 5063, pp. 287–291.
Liao, Y. C. , and Yu, M. H. , 2007, “ Effects of Laser Beam Energy and Incident Angle on the Pulse Laser Welding of Stainless Steel Thin Sheet,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 190(1–3), pp. 102–108. [CrossRef]
Krasnoperov, M. Y. , Pieters, R. R. G. M. , and Richardson, I . M. , 2004, “ Weld Pool Geometry During Keyhole Laser Welding of Thin Steel Sheets,” Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining J., 9(6), pp. 501–506. [CrossRef]
Kralj, S. , Bauer, B. , and Kozuh, Z. , 2003, “ Laser Welding of Thin Sheet Heat-Treatable Steel,” Annals of DAAAM for 2003, 14th International DAAAM Symposium, B. Katalinic, ed., Sarajevo, BOSNIA & HERCEG, pp. 245–246.
Kah, P. , Suoranta, R. , and Martikainen, J. , 2011, “ Joining of Sheet Metals Using Different Welding Processes,” Mechanika 2011,16th International Conference, Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania, pp. 158–163.
Farid, M. , and Molian, P. A. , 2000, “ High-Brightness Laser Welding of Thin-Sheet 316 Stainless Steel,” J. Mater. Sci., 35(15), pp. 3817–3826. [CrossRef]
Steen, M. W. , and Mazumder, J. , 2010, Laser Material Processing, Springer, London, Chap. 3.
Rao, P. K. , Liu, J. , Roberson, D. , Kong, Z. , and Williams, C. , 2015, “ Online Real-Time Quality Monitoring in Additive Manufacturing Processes Using Heterogeneous Sensors,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(6), p. 061007. [CrossRef]
Tapia, G. , and Elwany, A. , 2014, “ A Review on Process Monitoring and Control in Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 060801. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) The surface morphology of the raster-scan weld, (b) the cross section of a single-line laser foil-welding onto a substrate, (c) the cross section of the raster-scan weld of one-layer foil onto a substrate, and (d) the cross section of a multilayer raster-scan weld

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) The top surface and (b) the cross section of a spot weld under the condition of 390 W of laser power and 6 ms of irradiation time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Apparatus setup for the foil-based laser AM process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) The front surface and (b) the rear surface of a cutting edge with laser parameters of 115 μJ pulse energy, 10,000 Hz pulse rate, and 30 mm/min cutting speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

As-fabricated samples by the proposed AM technology: (a) a model of St.Louis arch, (b) a logo of Missouri University of Science and Technology, (c)acylinder with gradient lateral surfaces, and (d) a sensor-embedded cylinder with rotating gradient lateral surfaces

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stress–strain curves of as-fabricated parts with tension exerted in the (a) horizontal and (b) vertical directions



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In