Incremental forming of thermoplastic surfaces has recently received significant interest due to the potential for simultaneous reduction in thermal energy consumption and in part-shape specific tooling. This paper examines the mechanical properties and the chain orientation of the formed material in single point incremental forming (SPIF) of amorphous polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and semicrystalline polyamide sheets. Tensile and stress relaxation properties of the formed polymers are compared to those of the unformed polymer. The effect of incremental depth and tool rotation speed on the above properties, and on the temperature rise of the sheet during SPIF, is quantified. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to compare the chain orientation and crystallinity of the formed and the unformed polymers. It is observed that the formed material has greater toughness and ductility, but lower yield stress and reduced Young's modulus, as compared to the unformed material. We also observe deformation-induced chain reorientation in the formed polymer, with minimal change in the degree of crystallinity. The link between the SPIF process parameters, temperature rise of the polymer during SPIF, change in chain orientation, and change in mechanical properties of the polymer is discussed.