Research Papers

The Origin of Flank Wear in Turning Ti-6Al-4V

[+] Author and Article Information
Trung Nguyen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Hanoi University of Science and Technology,
Room C112,
C5 building, No. 1,
Dai Co Viet Road,
Hanoi, Vietnam
e-mail: rockhomedo@gmail.com

Patrick Kwon

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: pkwon@egr.msu.edu

Di Kang

Department of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: Kangdi@egr.msu.edu

Thomas R. Bieler

Department of Chemical Engineering and
Materials Science,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: bieler@egr.msu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 10, 2015; final manuscript received June 9, 2016; published online September 29, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(12), 121013 (Sep 29, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1401; doi: 10.1115/1.4034008 History: Received August 10, 2015; Revised June 09, 2016

Unlike ferrous materials, where the cementite (Fe3C) phase acts as an abrasive that contributes to flank wear on the cutting tool, most titanium (Ti) alloys possesses no significant hard phase. Thus, the origin of flank wear is unclear in machining Ti alloys. To address this question, a Ti-6Al-4V bar was turned under various conditions with uncoated carbide and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) inserts, most commonly used tool materials for machining Ti alloys. These inserts were retrieved sporadically while tuning to examine the wear patterns using a confocal microscope. To correlate the patterns with the microstructure of the original bar, the microstructure was carefully characterized using Orientation Image Microscopy (OIM) with electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD). From the wear patterns, two distinct types of damage were identified: (a) microscopic and macroscopic fractures on the cutting edges and (b) scoring marks on flank faces. This paper demonstrates that both types of damage were caused primarily by the heterogeneity in hardness in the α-crystals, where the plane perpendicular to the c-axis in an α-crystal is substantially harder than any other direction in the α-crystal as well as the isotropic β-crystal. In addition to such heterogeneities, adhesion layer, ubiquitous to machining Ti alloys, detaches small fragments of the tool, which resulted in microscopic and macroscopic fractures observed on flank wear.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Ezugwu, E. O. , and Wang, Z. M. , 1997, “ Materials Titanium Alloys and Their Machinability,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 68(3), pp. 262–274. [CrossRef]
Rahman, M. , Wong, Y. S. , and Zareena, A. R. , 2003, “ Machinability of Titanium Alloys,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C, 46(1), pp. 107–115. [CrossRef]
Calamaz, M. , Coupard, D. , and Girot, F. , 2008, “ A New Material Model for 2D Numerical Simulation of Serrated Chip Formation When Machining Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 48(3–4), pp. 275–288. [CrossRef]
Andriya, N. , Rao, P. V. , and Ghosh, S., 2012 , “ Dry Machining of Ti-6Al-4V Using PVD Coated TiAlN Tools,” World Congress on Engineering, Vol. III, pp. 2–7.
Nandy, A. K. , and Paul, S. , 2008, “ Effect of Coolant Pressure, Nozzle Diameter, Impingement Angle and Spot Distance in High Pressure Cooling With Neat Oil in Turning Ti-6Al-4V,” Mach. Sci. Technol.: Int. J., 12(4), pp. 445–473. [CrossRef]
Toh, C. K. , and Kanno, S. , 2004, “ Surface integrity Effects on Turned 6061 and 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloys,” J. Mater. Sci., 39(3) pp. 3497–3500. [CrossRef]
Boothroyd, G. , 1975, Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools, Scripta Book Company, Washington, DC.
Shahan, A. R. , and Taheri, A. K. , 1993, “ Adiabatic Shear Bands in Titanium and Titanium Alloys: A Critical Review,” Mater. Des., 14(4), pp. 243–250. [CrossRef]
Konig, W. , 1979, “ Applied Research on the Machinability of Titanium and Its Alloys,” Proceedings of the 47th Meeting on AGARD Structural and Materials Panel, Florence, Italy, Sept. 26–28, 1978, NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, London, pp. 1.1–1.10, No. AGARD-CP-256.
Hartung, P. D. , and Kramer, B. M. , 1982, “ Tool Wear in Titanium Machining,” CIRP Ann. -Manuf. Technol., 31(1), pp. 75–80. [CrossRef]
Dhar, N. R. , Paul, S. , and Chattopadhyay, A. B. , 2002, “ Machining of AISI 4140 Steel Under Cryogenic Cooling - Tool Wear, Surface Roughness and Dimensional Deviation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 123(3), pp. 483–489. [CrossRef]
Dhar, N. R. , Ahmed, M. T. , and Islam, S. , 2007,“ An Experimental Investigation on Effect of Minimum Quantity Lubrication in Machining AISI 1040 Steel,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(5), pp. 748–753. [CrossRef]
List, G. , Nouari, M. , Géhin, D. , Gomez, S. , Manaud, J. P. , Le Petitcorps, Y. , and Girot, F. , 2005, “ Wear Behaviour of Cemented Carbide Tools in Dry Machining of Aluminium Alloy,” Wear, 259(7–12), pp. 1177–1189. [CrossRef]
Ramesh, S. , Karunamoorthy, L. , and Palanikumar, K. , 2008, “ Fuzzy Modeling and Analysis of Machining Parameters in Machining Titanium Alloy,” Mater. Manuf. Processes, 23(4), pp. 439–447. [CrossRef]
Machado, A. R. , and Wallbank, J. , 1990, “ Machining of Titanium and Its Alloys-A Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 204(1), pp. 53–60. [CrossRef]
Armendia, M. , Osborne, P. , Garay, A. , Belloso, J. , Turner, S. , and Arrazola, P.-J. , 2012, “ Influence of Heat Treatment on the Machinability of Titanium Alloys,” Mater. Manuf. Processes, 27(4), pp. 457–461. [CrossRef]
Boyer, R. R. , 1996, “ An Overview on the Use of Titanium in the Aerospace Industry,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 213(1–2), pp. 103–114. [CrossRef]
Oosthuizen, G. A. , Akdogan, G. , Dimitrov, D. , and Treurnich, N. F. , 2010, “ A Review of the Machinability of Titanium Alloys,” R&D J. South Afr. Inst. Mech. Eng., 26, pp. 43–52.
Machai, C. , Iqbal, A. , Biermann, D. , Upmeier, T. , and Schumann, S. , 2013, “ On the Effects of Cutting Speed and Cooling Methodologies in Grooving Operation of Various Tempers of β-Titanium Alloy,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 213(7), pp. 1027–1037. [CrossRef]
Joshi, S. , Pawar, P. , Tewari, A. , and Joshi, S. S. , 2014, “ Effect of β Phase Fraction in Titanium Alloys on Chip Segmentation in Their Orthogonal Machining,” CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol., 7(3), pp. 191–201. [CrossRef]
Motonishi, S. , Isoda, S. , Itoh, H. , Tsumori, Y. , and Terada, Y. , 1987, “ Study on Machining of Titanium and Its Alloys,” Kobelco Technol. Rev., 2, pp. 28–31.
Molinari, A. , Musquar, C. , and Sutter, G. , 2002, “ Adiabatic Shear Banding in High Speed Machining of Ti–6Al–4V: Experiments and Modeling,” Int. J. Plast., 18(4), pp. 443–459. [CrossRef]
Rahim, E. A. , Kamdani, K. , and Sharif, S. , 2008, “ Performance Evaluation of Uncoated Carbide Tool in High Speed Drilling of Ti6Al4V,” J. Adv. Mech. Des. Syst. Manuf., 2(4), pp. 522–531.
Gente, A. , Hoffmeister, H. W. , and Evans, C. J. , 2001, “ Chip Formation in Machining Ti6Al4V at Extremely High Cutting Speeds,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 50(1), pp. 49–52. [CrossRef]
Bayoumi, E. , and Xie, J. Q. , 1995, “ Some Metallurgical Aspects of Chip Formation in Cutting Ti-6wt.%Al-4wt.%V Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 190(1–2), pp. 173–180. [CrossRef]
Arrazola, P.-J. , Garay, A. , Iriarte, L.-M. , Armendia, M. , Marya, S. , and Le Maître, F. , 2009, “ Machinability of Titanium Alloys (Ti6Al4V and Ti555.3),” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(5), pp. 2223–2230. [CrossRef]
Ibrahim, G. A. , CheHaron, C. H. , and Ghani, J. A. , 2009, “ Surface Integrity of Ti-6Al-4V ELI When Machined Using Coated Carbide Tools Under Dry Cutting Condition,” Int. J. Mech. Mater. Eng., 4(2), pp. 191–196.
Jawaid, A. , Che-Haron, C. , and Abdullah, A. , 1999, “ Tool Wear Characteristics in Turning of Titanium Alloy Ti-6246,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 92–93, pp. 329–334. [CrossRef]
Bermingham, M. J. , Kirsch, J. , Sun, S. , Palanisamy, S. , and Dargusch, M. S. , 2011, “ New Observations on Tool Life, Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology in Cryogenic Machining Ti-6Al-4V,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(6), pp. 500–511. [CrossRef]
Dearnley, P. A. , and Grearson, A. N. , 1986, “ Evaluation of Principal Wear Mechanisms of Cemented Carbides and Ceramics Used for Machining Titanium Alloy IMI 318,” Mater. Sci. Technol. 2(1), pp. 47–58. [CrossRef]
Hughes, J. I. , Sharman, A. R. C. , and Ridgway, K. , 2004, “ The Effect of Tool Edge Preparation on Tool Life and Workpiece Surface Integrity,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 218(9), pp. 1113–1123. [CrossRef]
Narutaki, N. , Murakoshi, A. , Motonishi, S. , and Takeyama, H. , 1983, “ Study on Machining of Titanium Alloys,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 32(1), pp. 65–69. [CrossRef]
Wright, P. K. , and Bagchi, A. , 1981, “ Wear Mechanisms That Dominate Tool-Life in Machining,” J. Appl. Metalworking, 1(4), pp. 15–23. [CrossRef]
Venugopal, K. A. , Paul, S. , and Chattopadhyay, A. B. , 2007, “ Growth of Tool Wear in Turning of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Under Cryogenic Cooling,” Wear, 262(9–10), pp. 1071–1078. [CrossRef]
Hasçalık, A. , and Çaydaş, U. , 2007, “ Optimization of Turning Parameters for Surface Roughness and Tool Life Based on the Taguchi Method,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 38(9–10), pp. 896–903.
Britton, T. B. , Liang, H. , Dunne, F. P. E. , and Wilkinson, A. J. , 2010, “ The Effect of Crystal Orientation on the Indentation Response of Commercially Pure Titanium: Experiments and Simulations,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 466(2115), pp. 695–719. [CrossRef]
Kwon, J. , Brandes, M. C. , Sudharshan Phani, P. , Pilchak, A. P. , Gao, Y. F. , George, E. P. , Pharr, G. M. , and Mills, M. J. , 2013, “ Characterization of Deformation Anisotropies in an α-Ti Alloy by Nanoindentation and Electron Microscopy,” Acta Mater., 61(13), pp. 4743–4756. [CrossRef]
Chen, H. , and Cao, C. , 2012, “ Characterization of Hot Deformation Microstructures of Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloy With Equiaxed Structure,” Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China, 22(3), pp. 503–509. [CrossRef]
Sabol, J. C. , Pasang, T. , Misiolek, W. Z. , and Williams, J. C. , 2012, “ Localized Tensile Strain Distribution and Metallurgy of Electron Beam Welded Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr Titanium Alloys,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(11), pp. 2380–2385. [CrossRef]
He, D. , Zhu, J. , Lai, Z. , Liu, Y. , Yang, X. , and Nong, Z. , 2013, “ Residual Elastic Stress–Strain Field and Geometrically Necessary Dislocation Density Distribution Around Nano-Indentation in TA15 Titanium Alloy,” Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China, 23(1), pp. 7–13. [CrossRef]
Rack, H. J. , and Qazi, J. I. , 2006, “ Titanium Alloys for Biomedical Applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 26(8), pp. 1269–1277. [CrossRef]
Hosseini, A. , and Kishawy, H. A. , 2014, “ Machining of Titanium Alloys,” in Machining of Titanium Alloys, J. P. Davim , ed., Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg.
Groover, M. P. , 2010, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and Systems, 4th ed., Wiley, New York.
Lammer, A. , 1988, “ Mechanical Properties of Polycrystalline Diamonds,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 4(11), pp. 949–955. [CrossRef]
Fang, Z. Z. , 2005, “ Correlation of Transverse Rupture Strength of WC–Co With Hardness,” Int. J. Refract. Metals Hard Mater., 23(2), pp. 119–127. [CrossRef]
Schrock, D. J. , Kang, D. , Bieler, T. R. , and Kwon, P. , 2014, “ Phase Dependent Tool Wear in Turning Ti-6Al-4V Using Polycrystalline Diamond and Carbide Inserts,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(4), p. 041018. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sectioned Bulk-Ti for EBSD and scan areas

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The geometric transformation on the tool nose: (a) 2D view, (b) 3D natural view, and (c) 3D transformed view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Tool wear observed in machining Ti alloys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Scoring marks on the flank face of inserts in machining of Ti alloys

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The configuration of the turning experiment and chip flow direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Microstructure of Bulk-Ti (α: dark, β: white)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Hardness of a single α-grain as a function of the declination angle [after 36]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The cutting plane in the workmaterial (denoted as B) with the hard α-crystal respected to flank face of tool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The arrangement of the hard α-crystals (darker color) in 3 samples at two distinct rotation angles: (a) at rotation angle of 0 deg and (b) at rotation angle of 90 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The size of hard α-cluster in Bulk-Ti and interaction of the hard α-cluster and the tools: (a) size estimation of the hard α-clusters on Sample A and (b) interaction of hard α-cluster and tool in straight turning

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The scoring marks on the carbides and PCD inserts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Adhesion layer on the rake face of YD101 and PCD inserts

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Width (μm) of ten scoring marks on YD101 insert

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Range and distribution of width of scoring marks on flank face respect to “hard” α-cluster size: (a) Vc = 200 sfm, DOC = 0.635 mm, (b) Vc = 300 sfm, DOC = 0.635 mm, and (c) Vc = 400 sfm, DOC = 0.635 mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Classifying of scoring marks on YD101 (Left: confocal image, Right: SEM image)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Classifying of scoring marks on PCD1200 (Left: confocal image, Right: SEM image

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Flank wear evolution of carbide inserts in three cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The flank wear evolution of PCD inserts in three cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of flank wear land on carbides and PCD inserts in all cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Cutting Ti64 with two planes respected to different microstructures: (a) straight turning (cutting microstructure in XY plane) and (b) face turning (cutting microstructure in YZ or XZ plane)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Scoring marks on flank face with YD101 at cutting speed 91 m/min, DOC = 1.2 mm: (a) inserts in face turning and (b) inserts in straight turning

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Width of scoring marks on flank face of YD101 inserts in straight turning and face turning



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In