0
Research Papers

Seam Welding of Aluminum Sheet Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing System

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul J. Wolcott

Center for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: wolcott.27@osu.edu

Christopher Pawlowski

Center for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: pawlowski.24@osu.edu

Leon M. Headings

Center for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: headings.4@osu.edu

Marcelo J. Dapino

Center for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: dapino.1@osu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 27, 2015; final manuscript received June 20, 2016; published online August 15, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(1), 011010 (Aug 15, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4034007 History: Received April 27, 2015; Revised June 20, 2016

Ultrasonic welding was investigated as a method of joining 0.076 in. (1.93 mm) thick aluminum 6061 flat sheet material. Joints were produced with ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) equipment in a modified application of the ultrasonic welding process. Through joint design development, successful welds were achieved with a scarf joint configuration. Using a design of experiments (DOE) approach, weld parameters including weld amplitude, scarf angle, and weld speed were optimized for mechanical strength. Lower angles and higher amplitudes were found to provide the highest strengths within the levels tested. Finite-element studies indicate that 5 deg and 10 deg angles produce an increased relative motion of the workpieces as compared to 15 deg, 20 deg, and 25 deg angles, likely leading to increased strength. Successful joints showed no indication of voids under optical microscopy. As-welded joints produce tensile strengths of 221 MPa, while heat treated joints produce tensile strengths of 310 MPa, comparable to heat treated bulk material. High-temperature tensile testing was conducted at 210 °C, with samples exhibiting strengths of 184.1 MPa, similar to bulk material. Room temperature fatigue testing resulted in cyclic failures at approximately 190,000 cycles on average, approaching that of bulk material.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Gould, J. , 2012, “ Joining Aluminum Sheet in the Automotive Industry—A 30 Year History,” Weld. J., 91, pp. 23–34.
Melhem, G. , Banyapadhyay, S. , and Sorrell, C. , 2014, “ Use of Aerospace Fasteners in Mechanical and Structural Applications,” Ann. Mater. Sci. Eng., 1(4), pp. 1–5.
Day, W. , and Schwarzbach, J. , 1946, “ A Flight Investigation of the Effects of Surface Finish on Wing Profile Drag,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 13(4), pp. 209–217. [CrossRef]
Dursun, T. , and Soutis, C. , 2014, “ Recent Developments in Advanced Aircraft Aluminium Alloys,” Mater. Des., 56, pp. 862–871. [CrossRef]
Zhao, H. , White, D. , and DebRoy, T. , 1999, “ Current Issues and Problems in Laser Welding of Automotive Aluminium Alloys,” Int. Mater. Rev., 44(6), pp. 238–266. [CrossRef]
Collette, M. , 2007, “ The Impact of Fusion Welds on the Ultimate Strength of Aluminum Structures,” 10th International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures, Houston, TX, Oct. 4.
Sriraman, M. , Gonser, M. , Fujii, H. , Babu, S. , and Bloss, M. , 2011, “ Thermal Transients During Processing of Materials by Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(10), pp. 1650–1657. [CrossRef]
Fujii, H. , Sriraman, M. , and Babu, S. , 2011, “ Quantitative Evaluation of Bulk and Interface Microstructures in Al-3003 Alloy Builds Made by Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 42(13), pp. 4045–4055. [CrossRef]
Hansen, S. , Vivek, A. , and Daehn, G. , 2015, “ Impact Welding of Aluminum Alloys 6061 and 5052 by Vaporizing Foil Actuators: Heat-Affected Zone Size and Peel Strength,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(5), p. 051013. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. , Kim, T. , Hu, S. , Cai, W. , Abell, J. , and Li, J. , 2013, “ Characterization of Joint Quality in Ultrasonic Welding of Battery Tabs,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Lee, S. , Kim, T. , Hu, S. , Cai, W. , and Abell, J. , 2015, “ Analysis of Weld Formation in Multilayer Ultrasonic Metal Welding Using High-Speed Images,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(3), p. 031016. [CrossRef]
Graff, K. , 2011, Welding Fundamentals and Processes—Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 6A, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
ASM-International, 1992, Properties of Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys—Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, Vol. 2, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Tsujino, J. , Ueoka, T. , Kashino, T. , and Sugahara, F. , 2000, “ Transverse and Torsional Complex Vibration Systems for Ultrasonic Seam Welding of Metal Plates,” Ultrasonics, 38(1–8), pp. 67–71. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wolcott, P. , Hehr, A. , and Dapino, M. , 2014, “ Optimized Welding Parameters for Al 6061 Ultrasonic Additive Manufactured Structures,” J. Mater. Res., 29(17), pp. 2055–2065. [CrossRef]
Hopkins, C. , Fernandez, S. , and Dapino, M. , 2010, “ Statistical Characterization of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Ti/Al Composites,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 132(4), p. 041006. [CrossRef]
Hopkins, C. , Wolcott, P. , Dapino, M. , Truog, A. , Babu, S. , and Fernandez, S. , 2012, “ Optimizing Ultrasonic Additive Manufactured Al 3003 Properties With Statistical Modeling,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 134(1), p. 011004. [CrossRef]
Dean, A. , and Voss, D. , 1999, Design and Analysis of Experiments, Springer, New York.
ASM-International, 1991, Heat Treating of Aluminum Alloys—Heat Treating, Vol. 4, ASM-International, Materials Park, OH.
Rice, R. , Jackson, J. , Bakuckas, J. , and T hompson, S. , 2011, Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH.
Forrest, P. , 1970, Fatigue of Metals, Pergamon Press, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Concept for using a UAM welder to join two metal sheets

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Image of 0.016 in. (0.406 mm) thickness scoping trial for Al 6061

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Lap joint (a) schematic and (b) cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Angled lap joint (a) schematic and (b) cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Scarf joint (a) schematic and (b) cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Scarf joint with welding on both sides: (a) schematic and (b) cross section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Test specimen geometry for tensile testing (dimensions are in millimeters), with 0.065 in. (1.651 mm) thickness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Main effects plots for UTS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Boundary conditions and loads applied to FEA model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Horizontal displacement results for each of the five angles modeled: (a) 5 deg, (b) 10 deg, (c) 15 deg, (d) 20 deg, and (e) 25 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Representative room temperature tensile test results for as-built and heat treated joints, (b) fracture surface of as-built joint, and (c) fracture surface of heat treated joint

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In