Technical Brief

Temperature Increase in Forming of Advanced High-Strength Steels Effect of Ram Speed Using a Servodrive Press

[+] Author and Article Information
Ali Fallahiarezoodar

Center for Precision Forming,
The Ohio State University,
339 Baker Systems,
9171 Neil Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: fallahiarezoodar.1@osu.edu

Ruzgar Peker

Center for Precision Forming,
The Ohio State University,
339 Baker Systems,
9171 Neil Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: peker.4@osu.edu

Taylan Altan

Center for Precision Forming,
The Ohio State University,
339 Baker Systems,
9171 Neil Avenue,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: altan.1@osu.edu

Manuscript received January 15, 2016; final manuscript received June 21, 2016; published online July 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Matteo Strano.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(9), 094503 (Jul 19, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4033996 History: Received January 15, 2016; Revised June 21, 2016

In forming of advanced high-strength steel (AHSS), the temperature increase at die/sheet interface affects the performance of lubricants and die wear. This study demonstrates that finite-element (FE) analysis, using commercially available software, can be used to estimate temperature increase in single as well as in multiple stroke operations. To obtain a reliable numerical process design, the knowledge of the thermal and mechanical properties of the sheet as well as the tools is essential. Using U-channel drawing the thermomechanical FE model has been validated by comparing predictions with experimental results. The effect of ram speed and stroking rate (stroke per minute (SPM)) upon temperature increase in real productionlike operation have been investigated. Deep drawing of CP800 and DP590 sheets in a servodrive press, using an industrial scale die, has been studied. Thinning distribution and temperatures in the drawn part have been investigated in single and multiple forming operations. It is found that temperatures may reach several 100 deg and affect the coefficient of friction (COF). The values of COF under productionlike conditions were compared to that obtained from laboratory experiments. This study illustrates that in forming AHSS, (a) the temperature increase at the die/sheet interface is relatively high and should be considered in process design stage, and (b) the lubricant performance is significantly affected by the ram speed and sheet/die interface temperature during deformation.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Altan, T. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2012, “ Plastic Deformation-Flow Stress, Anisotropy, and Formability,” Sheet Metal Forming-Fundamentals, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, pp. 33–52.
Altan, T. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2012, “ Electromechanical Servo-Drive Presses,” Sheet Metal Forming-Fundamentals, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, pp. 160–180.
Kim, H. , Altan, T. , and Yan, Q. , 2009, “ Evaluation of Stamping Lubricants in Forming Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) Using Deep Drawing and Ironing Tests,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(8), pp. 4122–4133. [CrossRef]
Pereira, M. P. , and Rolfe, B. F. , 2014, “ Temperature Conditions During ‘Cold’ Sheet Metal Stamping,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214(8), pp. 1749–1758. [CrossRef]
Farren, W. , and Taylor, G. , 1925, “ The Heat Developed During Plastic Extension of Metals,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 107(743), pp. 422–451. [CrossRef]
Gaard, A. , Hallback, N. , Krakhmalev, P. , and Bergstrom, J. , 2010, “ Temperature Effects on Adhesive Wear in Dry Sliding Contacts,” Wear, 268(7–8), pp. 968–975. [CrossRef]
Wilson, W. R. D. , 1997, “ Tribology in Cold Metal Forming,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 119(4B), pp. 695–698. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H. , Sung, J. H. , Piao, K. , and Wagoner, R. H. , 2011, “ The Shear Fracture of Dual-Phase Steel,” Int. J. Plast., 27(10), pp. 1658–1676. [CrossRef]
Ju, L. , Patil, S. , Dykeman, J. , and Altan, T. , 2015, “ Forming of Al 5182-O in a Servo Press at Room and Elevated Temperatures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(5), p. 051009. [CrossRef]
Gutscher, G. , Wu, H. C. , Ngaile, G. , and Altan, T. , 2004, “ Determination of Flows Stress for Sheet Metal Forming Using the Viscous Pressure Bulge (VPB) Test,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 146(1), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Billur, E. , 2013, “ Fundamentals and Applications of Hot Stamping Technology for Producing Crash-Relevant Automotive Parts,” Ph.D. thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Ju, L. , Mao, T. , Malpica, J. , and Altan, T. , 2015, “ Evaluation of Lubricants for Stamping of Al 5182-O Aluminum Sheet Using Cup Drawing Test,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(5), p. 051010. [CrossRef]
Wilson, W. R. D. , Hsu, T. C. , and Huang, X. B. , 1995, “ A Realistic Friction Model for Computer Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes,” J. Eng. Ind., 117(2), pp. 202–209. [CrossRef]
Sun, D. C. , Chen, K. K. , and Nine, H. D. , 1987, “ Hydrodynamic Lubrication in Hemispherical Punch Stretch Forming—Modified Theory and Experimental Validation,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 29(10–11), pp. 761–776. [CrossRef]
Altan, T. , Ngaile, G. , and Shen, G. , 2005, “ Presses and Hammers for Cold and Hot Forging,” Cold and Hot Forging-Fundamentals and Applications, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, pp. 115–140.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow stress data for 1.4 mm CP800 and DP590 obtained from the VPB test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic cross section of the simulation setup and the geometrical parameters used for simulation of U-channel forming [4]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Max. temperature predicted by FE simulation and measured experimentally at die/sheet interface during the U-channel drawing of 2 mm DP780. The experimental results are from Ref.[4].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic of the nonsymmetric industrial scale die used in this study for deep drawing process (die set built by Shiloh Industries)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Measurement of the thinning distribution along a curvilinear length of 1.4 mm CP800 panel formed up to 48 mm. Thickness of the six locations along the cutting line are measured in experimental sample and the thinning values are compared with simulation results for approximately the same locations (a) simulation prediction and (b) the formed panel and the locations of measurements.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Thinning percentage versus curvilinear length at the corner of the formed panel, shown in Fig. 5, material CP800, initial thickness 1.4 mm, Drawing depth 48 mm, and blankholder force 250 kN

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Thinning percentage versus curvilinear length at the corner of the formed panel, Fig. 5, material DP590, initial thickness 1.4 mm, drawing depth 70 mm, and blankholder force 200 kN

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Max. temperature rise at die/sheet interface for two values of COF, during the deep drawing of 1.4 CP800 with 250 kN blankholder force and 75 mm/s ram speed. (Die geometry is shown in Fig. 4).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature predicted at panels formed up to 48 mm depth with 250 kN blankholder force and 75 mm/s ram speed; (top) 1.4 mm CP800, (bottom) 1.4 mm DP590

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Ram speed versus stroke curve used in 48 mm deep drawing of CP800 with Aida 300-ton servodrive press and 25-ton servocushion, (crank diameter = 400 mm), stroke = 0 is the top dead center and stroke = 400 is when the ram is at bottom dead center

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Calculated temperature rise at die/sheet interface in U-channel drawing with: (a) 5 SPM and (b) 30 SPM forming speed, F: forming stage; T: transfer stage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Temperature rise at die/sheet interface at deep drawing of 1.4 mm CP800 in consecutive multiple forming, F: forming stage; T: transfer stage




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In