Technical Brief

Piezo-Actuated Modulation-Assisted Drilling System With Integrated Force Sensing

[+] Author and Article Information
Yang Guo, Seong Eyl Lee

M4 Sciences LLC,
West Lafayette, IN 47906

James B. Mann

M4 Sciences LLC,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: jbmann@m4sciences.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 12, 2016; final manuscript received June 5, 2016; published online August 8, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Tony Schmitz.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(1), 014501 (Aug 08, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1033; doi: 10.1115/1.4033929 History: Received January 12, 2016; Revised June 05, 2016

A new electromechanical modulation system designed with piezoelectric stacks for both linear actuation and force sensing functions is described. The system can be adapted for modulation-assisted machining (MAM) drilling processes where a low-frequency (<1000 Hz) sinusoidal oscillation is superimposed directly onto the drilling process, such that the feedrate is modulated. A series of drilling experiments were conducted in Ti6Al4V, 17-4 steel, and Al6061 with the system installed on a CNC machine. The drill displacement, thrust force, and chip morphology were characterized across a range of conventional and MAM drilling conditions. The mechanical response (stiffness) of the system agrees with the design specifications. The system offers new capabilities to control the modulation frequency and amplitude in MAM drilling, while simultaneously measuring the drilling thrust force in real time. The force sensing function enables detection of the intermittent separations between the drill tip and the workpiece surface (occurrence of discrete cutting), providing a method to prescribe and control the modulation conditions necessary for effective MAM drilling. Opportunities for force feedback control and process monitoring in MAM drilling processes are discussed. While the system described emphasizes MAM drilling, the capabilities can be extended to other machining processes.

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Fig. 1

(a) Out-of-phase and (b) in-phase sinusoidal cutting paths in MAM

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Fig. 2

Schematic of piezo-actuated modulation system showing the configuration of piezo-actuator, force sensor, preload spring, and moving end. The spring exerts compressive preload.

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Fig. 3

Calibration of piezoelectric actuator of the modulation system: drive voltage–displacement relation for the actuator

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Fig. 4

Calibration of piezoelectric force sensor of the modulation system: (a) schematic of calibration configuration and (b) force–voltage relation for the sensor and charge amplifier system

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Fig. 5

Measured displacement, thrust force, and the resulting chip morphology in drilling Ti6Al4V: (a) conventional drilling (test C1), (b) in-phase MAM drilling (test M1), (c) out-of-phase MAM drilling with insufficient amplitude (test M2), and (d) out-of-phase MAM drilling with sufficient amplitude where discrete cutting occurs (test M5)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of thrust force between conventional drilling and MAM drilling at modulation conditions where discrete cutting occurs

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Fig. 7

(a) Relationship between the thrust force and the system displacement in conventional drilling and (b) relationship between the range of thrust force and the reduction in oscillation amplitude in MAM drilling. Both reflect system stiffness of approximately 16 N/μm.

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Fig. 8

Variation of the lower bound of thrust force (Ft_min) with the oscillation amplitude (App) in MAM drilling and discrete chips corresponding to data points a–d




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