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Research Papers

Stress Field Analysis in Orthogonal Cutting Process Using Digital Image Correlation Technique

[+] Author and Article Information
Dong Zhang, Wen-Jie Xu, Han Ding

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China

Xiao-Ming Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zhangxm.duyi@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 8, 2016; final manuscript received May 28, 2016; published online October 3, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(3), 031001 (Oct 03, 2016) (13 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1018; doi: 10.1115/1.4033928 History: Received January 08, 2016; Revised May 28, 2016

Cutting stress field in machining process plays a significant role in the understanding of cutting mechanics and prediction of surface integrity, tool wear, and failure. It is in great need to get accurate and reliable cutting stresses in the chip formation zone. In this paper, a new methodology to obtain the cutting stress field is proposed. The deformation field containing elastic as well as plastic parts can be obtained via digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The orthogonal cutting stress field can be obtained with the experimental determined deformation field and material constitutive model as inputs. However, the challenge is to handle the inaccuracy of infinitesimal elastic deformation involved in the total deformation due to the inaccuracy of the obtained images. We develop a method to modify the hydrostatic pressure field based on mechanical equilibrium equations to compensate the inaccuracy of elastic deformation part. Besides, Eulerian logarithmic strain based on a least square plane fit on a subset of displacement data is adopted to reduce the image noise. The stress distribution along the shear plane and tool–chip interface can be extracted and integrated to calculate cutting forces. A feasibility study is performed by comparing the cutting forces predicted based on this new method against the experimental measurements. The comparison of cutting parameters obtained through DIC technique with finite element method (FEM) predictions is also made.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The experimental setup (a) with the structure (b)

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Fig. 2

Geometry of plastic deformation zone with boundary conditions and internal grids

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Fig. 3

Velocity components for cutting condition no. 1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 4

Velocity components for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 5

Velocity scatter plot for cutting condition no. 1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 6

Velocity scatter plot for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 7

Material streamlines and enlarged view in the vicinity of the cutting tool edge for cutting condition no.1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 8

Material streamlines and enlarged view in the vicinity of the cutting tool edge for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 9

Equivalent plastic strain and strain rate for cutting condition no. 1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 10

Equivalent plastic strain and strain rate for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 11

Equivalent stress, unmodified, and modified hydrostatic pressure for cutting condition no. 1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 12

Equivalent stress, unmodified, and modified hydrostatic pressure for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 13

Stress components for cutting condition no. 1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 14

Stress components for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 15

Paths of shear plane and rake surface for two different cutting conditions: (a) for no. 1 and (b) for no. 2

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Fig. 16

Stress and interface characteristics distributions along the rake surface (in the same direction with chip flow) for cutting condition no. 1 (V = 0.5 m/min, h = 0.1 mm, γ = 18 deg, β = 3 deg, and R = 4 μm)

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Fig. 17

Stress and interface characteristics distributions along the rake surface (in the same direction with chip flow) for cutting condition no. 2 (V = 0.35 m/min, h = 0.15 mm, γ = 21 deg, β = 9 deg, and R = 14 μm)

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Fig. 18

Streamlines around the cutting two edge and the extraction path of rake face stress: (a) for no. 1 and (b) for no. 2

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Fig. 19

Stress distribution along the shear plane for (a) cutting condition no. 1 and (b) cutting condition no. 2 (from the workpiece-chip outer surface to cutting edge)

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Fig. 20

Cutting force integration paths for the two cutting conditions: (a) for no. 1 and (b) for no. 2

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Fig. 21

Experimental measured cutting forces for (a) no. 1 and (b) no. 2

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Fig. 22

Contour plots of equivalent strain rate for (a) no. 1 and (b) no. 2

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Fig. 23

Contour plots of hydrostatic pressure for (a) no. 1 and (b) no. 2

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