0
Research Papers

Investigation of Deformation Behavior of SS304 and Pure Copper Subjected to Electrically Assisted Forming Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Tianhao Jiang

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: jth@sjtu.edu.cn

Linfa Peng

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: penglinfa@sjtu.edu.cn

Peiyun Yi

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yipeiyun@sjtu.edu.cn

Xinmin Lai

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System
and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China;
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture
for Thin-Walled Structures,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: xmlai@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 12, 2016; final manuscript received May 29, 2016; published online August 8, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(1), 011004 (Aug 08, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1161; doi: 10.1115/1.4033904 History: Received March 12, 2016; Revised May 29, 2016

Both electrically assisted tension (EAT) and thermally assisted tension (TAT) tests were performed on SS304 and pure copper to decouple the influence of elevated temperature from electric current on flow stress and ductility. It is found that the reduction on flow stress and ductility of SS304 are more dependent on the elevated temperature than electric current, but electric current has a stronger effect by 10% on reducing flow stress and ductility of pure copper than the elevated temperature does. As the flow stress and ductility of two metals are related to the dislocation evolution, a constitutive model considering both storage and annihilation process of dislocation was established to describe the effect of electric current and temperature on dislocation movement. It is found that electric current accelerated the annihilation process of dislocation in pure copper up to 20% in EAT compared with that in TAT, but such phenomenon was rarely observed in SS304. Furthermore, attempts have also been made to distinguish the influence of elevated temperature with that of electric current on microstructure evolution and it is also found that the formation of [111] crystals in pure copper is nearly 10% less in EAT than that in TAT.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Donnadieu, P. , Dirras, G. F. , and Douin, J. , 2002, “ An Approach of Precipitate/Dislocation Interaction in Age-Hardened Al-Mg-Si Alloys: Measurement of The Strain Field Around Precipitates and Related Simulation of the Dislocation Propagation,” Transtec Publications, 396–402, pp. 1019–1024.
Ghavam, K. , Bagheriasl, R. , and Worswick, M. J. , 2014, “ Analysis of Nonisothermal Deep Drawing of Aluminum Alloy Sheet With Induced Anisotropy and Rate Sensitivity at Elevated Temperatures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(1), p. 011006. [CrossRef]
Ju, L. , Patil, S. , Dykeman, J. , and Altan, T. , 2015, “ Forming of Al 5182-O in a Servo Press at Room and Elevated Temperatures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(5), p. 051009. [CrossRef]
Troitskii, O. A. , 1969, “ Electromechanical Effect in Metals,” ZhETF Pis. Red., 10(1), pp. 18–22.
Ross, C. D. , Kronenberger, T. J. , and Roth, J. T. , 2009, “ Effect of dc on the Formability of Ti–6Al–4V,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 131(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Zhu, R. F. , Tang, G. Y. , Shi, S. Q. , and Fu, M. W. , 2013, “ Effect of Electroplastic Rolling on the Ductility and Superelasticity of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy,” Mater. Des., 44, pp. 606–611. [CrossRef]
Xu, Z. , Tang, G. , Tian, S. , Ding, F. , and Tian, H. , 2007, “ Research of Electroplastic Rolling of AZ31 Mg Alloy Strip,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 182(1–3), pp. 128–133. [CrossRef]
Xu, Q. , Tang, G. , Jiang, Y. , Hu, G. , and Zhu, Y. , 2011, “ Accumulation and Annihilation Effects of Electropulsing on Dynamic Recrystallization in Magnesium Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 528(7–8), pp. 3249–3252. [CrossRef]
Samei, J. , Green, D. E. , and Golovashchenko, S. , 2014, “ Analysis of Failure in Dual Phase Steel Sheets Subject to Electrohydraulic Forming,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(5), p. 051010. [CrossRef]
Decker, B. Y. , and Gan, Y. X. , 2015, “ Electric Field-Assisted Additive Manufacturing Polyaniline Based Composites for Thermoelectric Energy Conversion,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(2), p. 024504. [CrossRef]
Conrad, H. , 2000, “ Electroplasticity in Metals and Ceramics,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 287(2), pp. 276–287. [CrossRef]
Molotskii, M. , and Fleurov, V. , 1995, “ Magnetic Effects in Electroplasticity of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B, 52(22), p. 15829. [CrossRef]
Li, D. , Yu, E. , and Liu, Z. , 2013, “ Microscopic Mechanism and Numerical Calculation of Electroplastic Effect on Metal's Flow Stress,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 580, pp. 410–413. [CrossRef]
Cao, W. , and Conrad, H. , 1995, “ Effects of Stacking Fault Energy and Temperature on the Electroplastic Effect in FCC Metals,” Micromechanics of Advanced Materials: A Symposium in Honor of Professor James C.M. Li's 70th Birthday: Proceedings of a Symposium, S.N.G. Chu, Ed., TMS, Warrendale, PA, p. 225.
Cao, W. , Sprecher, A. F. , and Conrad, H. , 1989, “ Measurement of the electroplastic effect in Nb,” Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, 22(12), p. 1026. [CrossRef]
Kinsey, B. , Cullen, G. , Jordan, A. , and Mates, S. , 2013, “ Investigation of Electroplastic Effect at High Deformation Rates for 304SS and Ti–6Al–4V,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 62(1), pp. 279–282. [CrossRef]
Shin, H. C. , Ha, T. K. , and Chang, Y. W. , 2001, “ Kinetics of Deformation Induced Martensitic Transformation in a 304 Stainless Steel,” Scr. Mater., 45(7), pp. 823–829. [CrossRef]
Jiang, T. , Peng, L. , Yi, P. , and Lai, X. , 2016, “ Analysis of the Electric and Thermal Effects on Mechanical Behavior of SS304 Subjected to Electrically Assisted Forming Process,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(6), p. 061004. [CrossRef]
Dzialo, C. M. , Siopis, M. S. , Kinsey, B. L. , and Weinmann, K. J. , 2010, “ Effect of Current Density and Zinc Content During Electrical-Assisted Forming of Copper Alloys,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 59(1), pp. 299–302. [CrossRef]
Cockcroft, M. G. , and Latham, D. J. , 1968, “ Ductility and the Workability of Metals,” J. Inst. Met., 96(1), pp. 33–39.
Zhu, Y. H. , To, S. , Lee, W. B. , Liu, X. M. , Jiang, Y. B. , and Tang, G. Y. , 2009, “ Effects of Dynamic Electropulsing on Microstructure and Elongation of a Zn–Al Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 501(1–2), pp. 125–132. [CrossRef]
Xu, Q. , Guan, L. , Jiang, Y. , Tang, G. , and Wang, S. , 2010, “ Improved Plasticity of Mg–Al–Zn Alloy by Electropulsing Tension,” Mater. Lett., 64(9), pp. 1085–1087. [CrossRef]
Hariharan, K. , Lee, M.-G. , Kim, M.-J. , Han, H. N. , Kim, D. , and Choi, S. , 2015, “ Decoupling Thermal and Electrical Effect in an Electrically Assisted Uniaxial Tensile Test Using Finite Element Analysis,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 46(7), pp. 3043–3051. [CrossRef]
Xie, H. , Dong, X. , Liu, K. , Ai, Z. , Peng, F. , Wang, Q. , Chen, F. , and Wang, J. , 2015, “ Experimental Investigation on Electroplastic Effect of DP980 Advanced High Strength Steel,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 637, pp. 23–28. [CrossRef]
Zhu, R. F. , Liu, J. N. , Tang, G. Y. , Shi, S. Q. , and Fu, M. W. , 2012, “ Properties, Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Cold Rolled Cu Strips Under Electropulsing Treatment,” J. Alloys Compd., 544, pp. 203–208. [CrossRef]
Jiang, Y. , Tang, G. , Shek, C. , Xie, J. , Xu, Z. , and Zhang, Z. , 2012, “ Mechanism of Electropulsing Induced Recrystallization in a Cold-Rolled Mg–9Al–1Zn Alloy,” J. Alloys Compd., 536, pp. 94–105. [CrossRef]
Ma, B. , Zhao, Y. , Ma, J. , Guo, H. , and Yang, Q. , 2013, “ Formation of Local Nanocrystalline Structure in a Boron Steel Induced by Electropulsing,” J. Alloys Compd., 549, pp. 77–81. [CrossRef]
Potapova, A. A. , and Stolyarov, V. V. , 2011, “ Structural Changes in Electroplastic Rolling and Annealing of TiNi Alloy Rod,” Steel Transl., 40(10), pp. 888–891. [CrossRef]
To, S. , Zhu, Y. H. , Lee, W. B. , Liu, X. M. , Jiang, Y. B. , and Tang, G. Y. , 2009, “ Effects of Current Density on Electropulsing-Induced Phase Transformations in a Zn–Al Based Alloy,” Appl. Phys. A, 96(4), pp. 939–944. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. , Lan, S. , and Ni, J. , 2013, “ Experimental Study of Electro-Plastic Effect on Advanced High Strength Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 582, pp. 211–218. [CrossRef]
Prasad, Y. , and Seshacharyulu, T. , 1998, “ Modelling of Hot Deformation for Microstructural Control,” Int. Mater. Rev., 43(6), pp. 243–258. [CrossRef]
Poliak, E. I. , and Jonas, J. J. , 2003, “ Initiation of Dynamic Recrystallization in Constant Strain Rate Hot Deformation,” ISIJ Int., 43(5), pp. 684–691. [CrossRef]
Magargee, J. , Morestin, F. , and Cao, J. , 2013, “ Characterization of Flow Stress for Commercially Pure Titanium Subjected to Electrically Assisted Deformation,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 135(4), p. 041003. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Ji, S. , and Sun, J. , 2006, “ Effect of Nitriding Time on the Nitrided Layer of AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 200(16), pp. 5067–5070. [CrossRef]
Conrad, H. , 2002, “ Thermally Activated Plastic Flow of Metals and Ceramics With an Electric Field or Current,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 322(1), pp. 100–107. [CrossRef]
Magargee, J. , Fan, R. , and Cao, J. , 2013, “ Analysis and Observations of Current Density Sensitivity and Thermally Activated Mechanical Behavior in Electrically-Assisted Deformation,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061022. [CrossRef]
Sieurin, H. , Zander, J. , and Sandström, R. , 2006, “ Modelling Solid Solution Hardening in Stainless Steels,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 415(1–2), pp. 66–71. [CrossRef]
Stewart, G. R. , and Jonas, J. J. , 2004, “ Static and Dynamic Strain Aging at High Temperatures in 304 Stainless Steel,” ISIJ Int., 44(7), pp. 1263–1272. [CrossRef]
Hogström, P. , Ringsberg, J. W. , and Johnson, E. , 2009, “ An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effects of Length Scale and Strain State on the Necking and Fracture Behaviours in Sheet Metals,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 36(10), pp. 1194–1203. [CrossRef]
Malygin, G. A. , 2005, “ Analysis of Structural Factors That Control Necking During Tension of FCC Metals and Alloys,” Phys. Solid State, 47(2), pp. 246–251. [CrossRef]
Bilyk, S. R. , Ramesh, K. T. , and Wright, T. W. , 2005, “ Finite Deformations of Metal Cylinders Subjected to Electromagnetic Fields and Mechanical Forces,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 53(3), pp. 525–544. [CrossRef]
Gallo, F. , Satapathy, S. , and Ravi-Chandar, K. , 2012, “ Plastic Deformation in Electrical Conductors Subjected to Short-Duration Current Pulses,” Mech. Mater., 55, pp. 146–162. [CrossRef]
Burakovsky, L. , Greeff, C. W. , and Preston, D. L. , 2003, “ Analytic Model of the Shear Modulus at All Temperatures and Densities,” Phys. Rev. B, 67, p. 094107. [CrossRef]
Li, Y. J. , Zeng, X. H. , and Blum, W. , 2004, “ Transition From Strengthening to Softening by Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine-Grained Cu,” Acta Mater., 52(17), pp. 5009–5018. [CrossRef]
Eckert, J. , Holzer, J. C. , Krill, C. E. , and Johnson, W. L. , 1992, “ Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of Nanocrystalline FCC Metals Prepared by Mechanical Attrition,” J. Mater. Res., 7(07), pp. 1751–1761. [CrossRef]
Mecking, H. , and Kocks, U. F. , 1981, “ Kinetics of Flow and Strain-Hardening,” Acta Metall., 29(11), pp. 1865–1875. [CrossRef]
Ding, L. , Zhang, X. , and Liu, C. R. , 2014, “ Dislocation Density and Grain Size Evolution in the Machining of Al6061-T6 Alloys,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(4), p. 041020. [CrossRef]
Hansen, N. , and Huang, X. , 1998, “ Microstructure and Flow Stress of Polycrystals and Single Crystals,” Acta Mater., 46(5), pp. 1827–1836. [CrossRef]
Huang, X. , Borrego, A. , and Pantleon, W. , 2001, “ Polycrystal Deformation and Single Crystal Deformation: Dislocation Structure and Flow Stress in Copper,” Mater. Sci. Eng., A, 319, pp. 237–241. [CrossRef]
Margulies, L. , Winther, G. , and Poulsen, H. F. , 2001, “ In Situ Measurement of Grain Rotation During Deformation of Polycrystals,” Science, 291(5512), pp. 2392–2394. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Stress reduction compared to room temperature tensile strength at various strains for 60 A/mm2 case with varying zinc content (data from Dzialo's research [19])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of tension setup: (a) EAT setup and (b) TAT setup [18]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature distribution in both x-axis and y-axis of pure copper treated in 500 A/mm2 at the true strain of 0.18 and 0.29

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow stress alternation between EAT and TAT: (a) EAT of 100 A/mm2 and TAT of 100 °C and (b) EAT of 150 A/mm2 and TAT of 204 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Stress–strain curves of pure Cu: (i) true stress–strain curves (ii) engineering stress–strain curves and (a) electrically assisted tensile test and (b) thermally assisted tensile test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

eue reduction of pure copper and SS304 treated in EAT and TAT (compared to room temperature tensile ductility)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Maximum uniform engineering strain eue of pure copper and SS304 treated in EAT and TAT

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Maximum temperature distribution of pure copper when necking happens treated in EAT of 500 A/mm2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison between uniform elongation eue obtained in the experiments and that calculated according to annihilation coefficient k2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Stress reductions of pure copper and SS304 treated in EAT and TAT (compared to room temperature tensile strength)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Flow stress alternation between EAT and TAT: (a) EAT of 500 A/mm2 and TAT of 75 °C and (b) EAT of 750 A/mm2 and TAT of 122 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Stress–strain curves of SS304: (i) true stress–strain curves (ii) engineering stress–strain curves and (a) electrically assisted tensile test (b) thermally assisted tensile test [18]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Volume fraction of [111] crystal treated in room temperature, EAT of 500 A/mm2, TAT of 75 °C, EAT of 750 A/mm2, and TAT of 122 °C at the true strain of 0.3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Dimensions of tensile specimen (unit: mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Error of softening effect model compared to experimental measurements of Cu: (a) EAT of 500 A/mm2 and TAT of 75 °C; (b) EAT of 750 A/mm2 and TAT of 122° C; (i) model from Ref. [41]; (ii) model from Ref. [42]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Hardness measurement under various experimental conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Grain orientation maps of pure copper specimens under various experimental conditions

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In