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Research Papers

Chip Formation and Force Responses in Linear Rock Cutting: An Experimental Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Demeng Che

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: dche@u.northwestern.edu

Weizhao Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: weizhaozhang2014@u.northwestern.edu

Kornel Ehmann

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: k-ehmann@northwestern.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 16, 2016; final manuscript received May 28, 2016; published online August 15, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Tony Schmitz.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(1), 011011 (Aug 15, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-16-1113; doi: 10.1115/1.4033905 History: Received February 16, 2016; Revised May 28, 2016

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters, as a major cutting tool, have been widely applied in oil and gas drilling processes. The understanding of the complex interactions at the rock and cutter interfaces is essential for the advancement of future drilling technologies; yet, these interactions are still not fully understood. Linear cutting of rock, among all the testing methods, avoids the geometric and process complexities and offers the most straightforward way to reveal the intrinsic mechanisms of rock cutting. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study of the cutter’s cutting performance and the rock’s failure behaviors on a newly developed linear rock cutting facility. A series of rock cutting tests were designed and performed. The acquired experimental data was analyzed to investigate the influences of process parameters and the rock’s mechanical properties on chip formation and force responses.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Topics: Cutting , Rocks
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

LRCT: (a) outside view and (b) inside view

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Fig. 2

PDC cutter with a customized shape

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Fig. 3

Rock samples used in the tests

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Fig. 4

Nonzero force readings when the stage is moving without cutting

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Fig. 5

Sketch of inertia force compensation

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Fig. 6

Raw data for a noncutting test

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Fig. 7

Filtered data for a noncutting test

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Fig. 8

Comparison between raw and compensated force data in a noncutting test

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Fig. 9

Force averaging algorithm in linear cutting of Indiana limestone with 1.6 mm depth of cut, 20 deg rake angle, and 63.5 mm/s cutting speed

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Fig. 10

Setup of the high-speed camera

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Fig. 11

Chip formation versus depth of cut in cutting of Indiana limestone

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Fig. 12

Chip formation versus rake angle in cutting of Berea sandstone

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Fig. 13

Chip formation versus cutting speed

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Fig. 14

Chip formation versus rock type

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Fig. 15

Force responses in cutting of Indiana limestone

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Fig. 16

Force responses in cutting of Austin chalk

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Fig. 17

Force responses in cutting of Berea sandstone

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Fig. 18

Force responses versus cutting speed: (a) cutting of Austin chalk with 15 deg rake angle and 0.8 mm depth of cut; (b) cutting of Austin chalk with 15 deg rake angle and 2.4 mm depth of cut; (c) cutting of Indiana limestone with 25 deg rake angle and 0.6 mm depth of cut; and (d) cutting of Indiana limestone with 25 deg rake angle and 1.4 mm depth of cut

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Fig. 19

Linear relationship between cutting and thrust forces: (a) cutting of Indiana limestone in the first test set; (b) cutting of Berea sandstone in the second test set; (c) cutting of Austin chalk in the third test set

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Fig. 20

Schematic of force responses in orthogonal cutting of rock

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Fig. 21

Linear relationship between the rake and mean friction angles

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Fig. 22

The time-domain cutting force data (a) and its PSD distribution (b) in cutting of Indiana limestone with a 4.2 mm/s cutting speed, a 15 deg rake angle and a 0.6 mm depth of cut

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Fig. 23

The time-domain cutting force data (a) and its PSD distribution (b) in cutting of Austin chalk with a 4.2 mm/s cutting speed, a 25 deg rake angle and a 2.4 mm depth of cut

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