Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters, as a major cutting tool, have been widely applied in oil and gas drilling processes. The understanding of the complex interactions at the rock and cutter interfaces is essential for the advancement of future drilling technologies; yet, these interactions are still not fully understood. Linear cutting of rock, among all the testing methods, avoids the geometric and process complexities and offers the most straightforward way to reveal the intrinsic mechanisms of rock cutting. Therefore, this paper presents an experimental study of the cutter’s cutting performance and the rock’s failure behaviors on a newly developed linear rock cutting facility. A series of rock cutting tests were designed and performed. The acquired experimental data was analyzed to investigate the influences of process parameters and the rock’s mechanical properties on chip formation and force responses.