Research Papers

Mechanistic Modeling of Five-Axis Machining With a Flat End Mill Considering Bottom Edge Cutting Effect

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhou-Long Li

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: lzl@sjtu.edu.cn

Li-Min Zhu

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: zhulm@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received December 12, 2015; final manuscript received May 13, 2016; published online June 24, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(11), 111012 (Jun 24, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1656; doi: 10.1115/1.4033663 History: Received December 12, 2015; Revised May 13, 2016

In five-axis milling, the bottom edge of a flat end mill is probably involved in cutting when the lead angle of tool axis changes to negative. The mechanistic model will lose accuracy if the bottom edge cutting effect is neglected. In this paper, an improved mechanistic model of five-axis machining with a flat end mill is presented to accurately predict cutting forces by combining the cutting effects of both side and bottom edges. Based on the kinematic analysis of the radial line located at the tool bottom part, the feasible contact radial line (FCRL) is analytically extracted. Then, boundaries of the bottom cutter-workpiece engagements (CWEs) are obtained by intersecting the FCRL with workpiece surfaces and identifying the inclusion relation of its endpoints with the workpiece volume. Next, an analytical method is proposed to calculate the cutting width and the chip area by considering five-axis motions of the tool. Finally, the method of calibrating bottom-cutting force coefficients by conducting a series of plunge milling tests at various feedrates is proposed, and the improved mechanistic model is then applied to predict cutting forces. The five-axis milling with a negative lead angle and the rough machining of an aircraft engine blisk are carried out to test the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed model. The results indicate that it is essential to take into account the bottom edge cutting effect for accurate prediction of cutting forces at tool path zones where the tool bottom part engages with the workpiece.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Cutting , Milling , Machining
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Fig. 1

General spatial motion of the flat end mill defined by two guiding curves

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Fig. 2

Illustration of the CWEs in five-axis milling

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Fig. 3

Improved mechanistic model of the flat end mill

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Fig. 4

Illustration of the FCRL with the same intersection points but different engagement segments

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Fig. 5

Extraction of the radial position of the CWE boundaries

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Fig. 6

Calculation of the IUCT of the bottom edge

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Fig. 7

Schematic of calculating the envelope profile

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Fig. 8

The local intersection occurs when the sign of g changes

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Fig. 9

Generation of the final SV

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Fig. 10

Schematic of workpiece updating

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Fig. 11

The plunge milling configuration for calibration of cutting forces coefficients

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Fig. 12

Calculation of the shear force coefficient KB,qc(q=r,t,a) and the edge force coefficient KB,qe(q=r,t,a) using linear regression approach

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Fig. 13

Five-axis milling with negative lead angle: (a) tool path simulation, (b) cutting experiment, and (c) finished part

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Fig. 14

Comparison of measured and predicted cutting forces in five-axis milling with negative lead angle

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Fig. 15

Close-up view of the measured and predicted forces during one period of revolution

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Fig. 16

Rough milling of an aircraft engine blisk: (a) tool path simulation, (b) updated workpiece, and (c) cutting experiment

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Fig. 17

Comparison of measured cutting forces and predicted forces of roughing milling of an aircraft engine blisk: (a) without considering the bottom edge cutting effect and (b) with integrating the bottom edge cutting effect




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