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Technical Brief

Affected Zones in an Aluminum Alloy Frictionally Penetrated by a Blind Rivet

[+] Author and Article Information
Junying Min

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hawaii at Manoa,
2540 Dole Street,
Honolulu, HI 96822
e-mail: junying.min@gmail.com

Jingjing Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Hawaii at Manoa,
2540 Dole Street,
Honolulu, HI 96822

Yongqiang Li, Blair E. Carlson

Manufacturing Systems Research Laboratory,
General Motors Global R&D,
30500 Mound Road,
Warren, MI 48090

Jianping Lin

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Tongji University,
Shanghai 201804, China

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Chair of Production Systems, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum 44801, Germany.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 4, 2015; final manuscript received September 12, 2015; published online November 16, 2015. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(5), 054501 (Nov 16, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1210; doi: 10.1115/1.4031635 History: Received May 04, 2015; Revised September 12, 2015

Friction stir blind riveting (FSBR), taking the advantages of friction stir processing with blind riveting, is a new joining process for dissimilar materials. This work is the first to employ electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD) techniques to examine the microstructural evolution in an aluminum alloy sheet (AA6111), which was frictionally penetrated by a rotating blind rivet. The purpose of this work was to develop a basis of microstructural understanding for subsequent investigations into thermal–mechanical modeling and/or mechanical behavior of the joint. Specifically, EBSD observations and microhardness results are identified and helped to characterize in the area close to the blind rivet; a stir zone (SZ), three thermomechanical-affected zones (TMAZs), as well as a heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the TMAZs, the microhardness decreased from above to below that of the base material as the distance to the rivet increased, and the HAZ was softer than the base metal. Fine (∼1 μm) and low aspect ratio grains were characterized in the SZ, and grain size increased as the distance to the rivet increased within the TMAZs. Nearly, no difference was observed in the grain structure between the HAZ and the base material.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of the FSBR process. (a) The rotating blind rivet approaches specimens. (b) The blind rivet has penetrated the specimens. (c) The mandrel is being pulled out. (d) The mandrel is broken, and the rivet tail forms [3].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

EBSD microstructure of the AA6111-T4: (a) inverse pole figure and (b) image quality where the yellow lines indicate LABs with misorientation between 2 deg and 15 deg and the red lines indicate HABs with misorientation larger than 15 deg (the same below)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

An illustration for the mount specimen and microhardness testing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

EBSD microstructure (step size: 3 μm) of the frictionally penetrated AA6111 specimen: an overview. (a) Inverse pole figure, (b) image quality, and (c) rescanned area 1 in (b) with a step size of 1 μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

EBSD microstructure (step size: 1 μm) of the frictionally penetrated AA6111 specimen: area 2 in Fig. 4(b). (a) Inverse pole figure, (b) image quality, and (c) rescanned area 3 in (b) with a step size of 0.4 μm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Microhardness along the radial direction (x-axis, refer to Fig. 3)

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