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Research Papers

Cold Metal Transfer Plug Welding of Aluminum AA6061-T6-to-Bare Mild Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Cao

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and
Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals,
Lanzhou University of Technology,
Langongping 287 Road,
Qilihe District,
Lanzhou, Gansu 730050, China
e-mail: caorui@lut.cn

Q. Huang

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and
Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals,
Lanzhou University of Technology,
Langongping 287 Road,
Qilihe District,
Lanzhou, Gansu 730050, China
e-mail: 852776916@qq.com

C. Z. Zeng

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and
Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals,
Lanzhou University of Technology,
Langongping 287 Road,
Qilihe District,
Lanzhou, Gansu 730050, China
e-mail: 1277010498@qq.com

B. Q. Ai

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and
Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals,
Lanzhou University of Technology,
Langongping 287 Road,
Qilihe District,
Lanzhou, Gansu 730050, China
e-mail: 983616454@qq.com

Q. Lin

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and
Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals,
Lanzhou University of Technology,
Langongping 287 Road,
Qilihe District,
Lanzhou, Gansu 730050, China
e-mail: lqllinqiaoli@163.com

J. H. Chen

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and
Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals,
Lanzhou University of Technology,
Langongping 287 Road,
Qilihe District,
Lanzhou, Gansu 730050, China
e-mail: zchen@lut.cn

Pei-Chung Wang

Manufacturing Systems Research Laboratory,
General Motors Global Research and
Development Center,
MC 480-106-RA2,
30500 Mound Road,
Warren, MI 48090
e-mail: pei-chung.wang@gm.com

Manuscript received August 1, 2015; final manuscript received March 10, 2016; published online April 7, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(8), 081008 (Apr 07, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1381; doi: 10.1115/1.4033040 History: Received August 01, 2015; Revised March 10, 2016

It was known that it is challenging to join lapped aluminum and bare steel with cold metal transfer (CMT) process because of the formation of significant brittle intermetallics. In this study, another attempt was made to join aluminum AA6061-T6 and bare mild steel with CMT plug welding. Welding tests were performed and the bonding mechanisms, fracture modes, and strengths of CMT plug welded joints were systematically characterized. It was found that it is feasible to join 1 mm thick bare mild steel-to-1 mm thick aluminum AA6061-T6. The material stacking sequence and the presence of a predrilled hole significantly affected the weldability of CMT plug welding bare mild steel-to-aluminum AA6061-T6. By positioning bare steel with a predrilled hole in the top aluminum AA6061-T6 and aligning a torch in the center of an 8 mm hole improved significantly the weld appearance and joint strength.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Aluminum , Steel , Welding
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematics of joint configuration: (a) aluminum without a predrilled hole-to-bare mild steel (joint I), (b) aluminum with a predrilled hole-to-bare mild steel (joint II), (c) bare mild steel without a predrilled hole-to-aluminum (joint III), and (d) bare mild steel with a predrilled hole-to-aluminum (joint IV) (dimensions in mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Appearance of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick AA6061-T6 without a hole-to-1.0 mm thick bare mild steel: (a) aluminum side, (b) steel side (joint I), (c) fractured aluminum along Al–steel interface, and (d) fractured steel side along Al–steel interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Weld appearance, (b) cross section, (c) microstructures of middle brazed interface A, and (d) microstructures transition brazed interface B of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick AA6061-T6 with a hole-to-1.0 mm thick bare mild steel (joint II)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of fracture site, (b) fracture surface at the steel side, and ((c)–(f)) microfracture surface microstructure of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick AA6061-T6 with hole-to-1.0 mm thick bare mild steel joint (joint II). (c) Magnified zone A in Fig. 4(b), (d) magnified zone D in Fig. 4(c), (e) magnified zone E in Fig. 4(c), (f) magnified zone B in Fig. 4(b), and (g) magnified zone C in Fig. 4(b).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of fracture surface (brazed interface) of CMT plug welded AA6061-T6: (a) bare and (b) galvanized mild steel joints

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Fig. 6

(a) Weld appearance, (b) cross section, and (c) and (d) detailed microstructures of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel without a hole-to-1.0 mm thick AA6061-T6 aluminum (joint III). (c) Magnified zone A in Fig. 6(b) and (d) magnified zone B in Fig. 6(b).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic of fracture site, (b) and (c) fracture surface at the steel side, and (d), (e) and (f) micro-fracture surface microstructure of CMT plug welded 1.0mm thick bare mild steel without a hole-to-1.0mm thick aluminum AA6061-T6 (Joint III), (d) Magnified zone A in Fig. 7(c),(e) Magnified zone B in Fig. 7(c),(f) Magnified zone C in Fig. 7(c).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Weld appearance, (b) cross section, (c) magnified zone A in Fig. 8(b), (d) magnified zone B in Fig. 8(b), (e) magnified zone C in Fig. 8(b), (f) magnified zone D in Fig. 8(b), (g) magnified zone E in Fig. 8(b), and (h) X-ray analysis of brazed interface C in Fig. 8(b) of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel with a hole-to-1.0 mm thick aluminum AA6061-T6 (joint IV)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effects of welding variables on the joint strength of CMT spot plug welding bare steel to Al sheets without the interaction effects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effects of material stacking sequence and the presence of a hole on the strength of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick aluminum-to-1.0 mm thick bare mild steel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Effect of the deviated distance from the center of a hole on the joint strength of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel-to-1.0 mm thick aluminum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Effect of the deviated distance from the center of a hole on the weld appearance of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel-to-1.0 mm thick aluminum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Effects of the diameter of the hole in steel workpiece on the strength of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel-to-1.0 mm thick aluminum

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Fig. 12

Effects of a hole diameter of steel on the weld appearance of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel-to-1.0 mm thick aluminum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) Schematic of fracture site, (b) macrofracture surface, (c) microfracture surface for zone A in (b), and (d) microfracture surface of zone B in (b) of CMT plug welded 1.0 mm thick bare mild steel with a hole-to-1.0 mm thick AA6061-T6 aluminum (joint IV)

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