Design Innovation Paper

Design, Fabrication, and Experimental Validation of a Warm Hydroforming Test System

[+] Author and Article Information
Mevlüt Türköz

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Selcuk University,
Konya 42075, Turkey
e-mail: mevlutturkoz@selcuk.edu.tr

Hüseyin Selçuk Halkacı

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Selcuk University,
Konya, Turkey

Mehmet Halkacı

Technical Sciences Vocational School of Higher Education,
Selcuk University,
Konya, Turkey

Murat Dilmeç

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture,
Necmettin Erbakan University,
Konya, Turkey

Semih Avcı

Institute of the Natural and Applied Sciences,
Selcuk University,
Campus of Alaeddin Keykubat,
Konya 42250, Turkey

Muammer Koç

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gaziantep University,
Gaziantep, Turkey;
Sustainability Division,
College of Science and Engineering (CSE),
Qatar Energy and Environment Research Institute (QEERI),
Qatar Foundation (QF),
Education City (EC),
Doha, Qatar

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received June 23, 2015; final manuscript received August 21, 2015; published online October 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(4), 045001 (Oct 27, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1306; doi: 10.1115/1.4031498 History: Received June 23, 2015; Revised August 21, 2015

In this study, a hydroforming system was designed, built, and experimentally validated to perform lab-scale warm hydromechanical deep drawing (WHDD) tests and small-scale industrial production with all necessary heating, cooling, control and sealing systems. This manuscript describes the detailed design and fabrication stages of a warm hydroforming test and production system for the first time. In addition, performance of each subsystem is validated through repeated production and/or test runs as well as through part quality measurements. The sealing at high temperatures, the proper insulation and isolation of the press frame from the tooling and synchronized control had to be overcome. Furthermore, in the designed system, the flange area can be heated up to 400 °C using induction heaters in the die and blank holders (BH), whereas the punch can be cooled down to temperatures of around 10 °C. Validation and performance tests were performed to characterize the capacity and limits of the system. As a result of these tests, the fluid pressure, the blank holder force (BHF), the punch position and speed were fine-tuned independent of each other and the desired temperature distribution on the sheet metal was obtained by the heating and cooling systems. Thus, an expanded optimal process window was obtained to enable all or either of increased production/test speed, reduced energy usage and time. Consequently, this study is expected to provide other researchers and manufacturers with a set of design and process guidelines to develop similar systems.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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Fig. 1

The warm hydroforming press

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Fig. 2

WHDD tooling design

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the heating and cooling systems designed for WHDD unit

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Fig. 4

Locations of the thermocouples on the die and BH

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Fig. 5

Design of the punch and cooling channels

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Fig. 6

Providing radial sealing with C-ring

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Fig. 7

Force equilibrium in hydromechanical deep drawing process

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Fig. 8

Pressure-leakage force values

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Fig. 9

Die design with axial sealing element: (a) detailed view and (b) general assembly view

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Fig. 10

The average temperature values obtained from eight thermocouples at eight different locations

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Fig. 11

The temperature distribution in the tools during forming at 300 °C

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Fig. 12

Changing of the tool innermost mean temperature at different temperatures during forming process

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Fig. 13

Location of the thermocouples on the fixture

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Fig. 14

Comparison of the sheet and the die outside and inside temperatures for mean temperature (T1–T2) for 300 °C

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the sheet and the die inside and outside temperatures after reaching the target temperature mean temperature (T1–T2) for 300 °C

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Fig. 16

Maximum temperature difference on the sheet during the process for 300 °C

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Fig. 17

Cooling performance of the punch during the process

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Fig. 18

The fluid pressure and BHF profiles obtained in a WHDD experiment

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Fig. 19

The loading profiles in the case studies experiments

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Fig. 20

Measured fluid pressure and BHF values in case 1 experiments

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Fig. 21

Temperature change of thermocouples, which are 10 mm outer than inner ones through the process

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Fig. 22

Changing of the punch temperature during the process

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Fig. 23

Formed cups in the conditions of Case 1 and Case 2

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Fig. 24

Thickness distribution of the cups in RD and TD in Case 1 experiments




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