0
Technical Brief

Determination of Force Parameters for Milling Simulations by Combining Optimization and Simulation Techniques

[+] Author and Article Information
Dennis Freiburg

Institute of Machining Technology,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Straße 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: freiburg@isf.de

Rouven Hense

Institute of Machining Technology,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Straße 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: hense@isf.de

Petra Kersting

Junior Professor
Institute of Machining Technology,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Straße 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany;
Institute of Process Technology and Quality Management,
Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg,
Magdeburg 39106, Germany
e-mail: petra.kersting@isf.de

Dirk Biermann

Professor
Institute of Machining Technology,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Straße 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: biermann@isf.de

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 13, 2015; final manuscript received August 11, 2015; published online October 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Tony Schmitz.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(4), 044502 (Oct 27, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1229; doi: 10.1115/1.4031336 History: Received May 13, 2015; Revised August 11, 2015

Milling is a machining process in which material removal occurs due to the rotary motion of a cutting tool relative to a typically stationary workpiece. In modern machining centers, up to and exceeding six degrees of freedom for motion relative to the tool and workpiece are possible, which results in a very complex chip and force formation. For the process layout, simulations can be used to calculate the occurring process forces, which are needed, e.g., for the prediction of surface errors of the workpiece, or for tool wear and process optimization examinations. One limiting factor for the quality of simulation results is the parametrization of the models. The most important parameters for milling simulations are the ones that calibrate the force model, as nearly every modeled process characteristic depends on the forces. This article presents the combination of a milling simulation with the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS) optimization algorithm for the fast determination of force parameters that are valid for a wide range of process parameters. Experiments were conducted to measure the process forces during milling with different process parameters. The measured forces serve as basis for tests regarding the quality of the determined force parameters. The effect of the tool runout on the optimization result is also discussed, as this may have significant influence on the forces when using tools with more than one tooth. The article ends with a conclusion, in which some notes about the practical application of the algorithm are given.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Altintas, Y. , Brecher, C. , Weck, M. , and Witt, S. , 2005, “ Virtual Machine Tool,” CIRP Ann.—Manuf. Technol., 54(2), pp. 115–138. [CrossRef]
Altintas, Y. , Kersting, P. , Biermann, D. , Budak, E. , Denkena, B. , and Lazoglu, I. , 2014, “ Virtual Process Systems for Part Machining Operations,” CIRP Ann.—Manuf. Technol., 63(2), pp. 585–605. [CrossRef]
Kienzle, O. , 1952, “ Die Bestimmung von Kräften und Leistungen an spanenden Werkzeugen und Werkzeugmaschinen,” Z. VDI, 94(11/12), pp. 299–305.
Oxley, P. , 1989, “ A Strain Hardening Solution for the Shear Angle in Orthogonal Metal Cutting,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 3(1–2), pp. 68–79.
Jayaram, S. , Kapoor, S. G. , and DeVor, R. E. , 2001, “ Estimation of the Specific Cutting Pressures for Mechanistic Cutting Force Models,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 41(2), pp. 265–281. [CrossRef]
Tuysuz, O. , Altintas, Y. , and Feng, H.-Y. , 2013, “ Prediction of Cutting Forces in Three and Five-Axis Ball-End Milling With Tool Indentation Effect,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 66, pp. 66–81. [CrossRef]
Kaymakci, M. , Kilic, Z. M. , and Altintas, Y. , 2012, “ Unified Cutting Force Model for Turning, Boring, Drilling and Milling Operations,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 54–55, pp. 34–45. [CrossRef]
Salguero, J. , Batista, M. , Calamaz, M. , Girot, F. , and Marcos, M. , 2013, “ Cutting Forces Parametric Model for the Dry High Speed Contour Milling of Aerospace Aluminium Alloys,” Procedia Eng., 63, pp. 735–742. [CrossRef]
Li, Z.-L. , and Zhu, L.-M. , 2014, “ Envelope Surface Modeling and Tool Path Optimization for Five-Axis Flank Milling Considering Cutter Runout,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Engineering, 136(4), p. 041021. [CrossRef]
Ycesan, G. , and Altintas, Y. , 1994, “ Improved Modelling of Cutting Force Coefficients in Peripheral Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 34(4), pp. 473–487. [CrossRef]
Azeem, A. , Feng, H.-Y. , and Wang, L. , 2004, “ Simplified and Efficient Calibration of a Mechanistic Cutting Force Model for Ball-End Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 44(2–3), pp. 291–298. [CrossRef]
Wan, M. , Zhang, W.-H. , Dang, J.-W. , and Yang, Y. , 2009, “ New Procedures for Calibration of Instantaneous Cutting Force Coefficients and Cutter Runout Parameters in Peripheral Milling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(14), pp. 1144–1151. [CrossRef]
Tukora, B. , and Szalay, T. , 2011, “ Real-Time Determination of Cutting Force Coefficients Without Cutting Geometry Restriction,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(12), pp. 871–879. [CrossRef]
Fletcher, R. , 1970, “ A New Approach to Variable Metric Algorithms,” Comput. J., 13(3), pp. 317–322. [CrossRef]
Zabel, A. , Odendahl, S. , and Peuker, A. , 2009, “ Combining Different Modeling Techniques to Optimize the Simulation of the Five-Axis Milling Process,” 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Design and Production of Machines and Dies/Molds, pp. 155–160.
Sonawane, H. A. , and Joshi, S. S. , 2015, “ Analytical Modeling of Chip Geometry in High-Speed Ball-End Milling on Inclined Inconel-718 Workpieces,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
Altintas, Y. , 2000, Manufacturing Automation: Metal Cutting Mechanics, Machine Tool Vibrations and CNC Design, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Odendahl, S. , Peuker, A. , and Zabel, A. , 2012, “ Improving the Simulation Accuracy in NC Milling by Using a Global CSG Workpiece Model,” Procedia CIRP, 1, pp. 657–662. [CrossRef]
Byrd, R. H. , Lu, P. , Nocedal, J. , and Zhu, C. , 1995, “ A Limited Memory Algorithm for Bound Constrained Optimization,” SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 16(5), pp. 1190–1208. [CrossRef]
Biermann, D. , Baschin, A. , Krebs, E. , and Schlenker, J. , 2011, “ Manufacturing of Dies From Hardened Tool Steels by 3-Axis Micromilling,” Prod. Eng., 5(2), pp. 209–217. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schema of the force calculation used in the milling simulation. Left: Milling tool with casted rays. View A: Discrete cutting edges of the tool depending on the casted rays. View B: Workpiece with cross section of undeformed chip (width of cut ae=0.5·d).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Flow chart of simulation and optimization process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup in the machine tool (a) and process parameters used for the force measurements (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Simulated forces Fx (solid line), Fy (dashed line), and Fz (dotted line) with different SNRs. Force parameters: kc = 600 N/mm2, mc = 0.2, kn = 300 N/mm2, mn = 0.4, kt = 400 N/mm2, mt = 0.1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Boxplot showing the influence of the number of engagements used for the optimization

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Comparison of measured forces (solid line) of experiment two with simulated forces with force parameters determined with experiments one (dashed line) and three (dotted line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Simulated (solid line) and measured (dashed line) force Fx with a runout error of r=0.007 mm

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In