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Research Papers

Fabrication of Microfluidic Manifold by Precision Extrusion Deposition and Replica Molding for Cell-Laden Device

[+] Author and Article Information
Jessica Snyder

Mechanical Engineering and
Mechanics Department,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
e-mail: jes592@drexel.edu

Ae Rin Son

Mechanical Engineering and
Mechanics Department,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
e-mail: as3266@drexel.edu

Qudus Hamid

Mechanical Engineering and
Mechanics Department,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
e-mail: qh25@drexel.edu

Wei Sun

Mechanical Engineering and
Mechanics Department,
Drexel University,
3141 Chestnut Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19104;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing, China
e-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 5, 2015; final manuscript received August 26, 2015; published online October 27, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Yong Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(4), 041007 (Oct 27, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1103; doi: 10.1115/1.4031551 History: Received March 05, 2015; Revised August 26, 2015

A PED (precision extrusion deposition)/replica molding process enables scaffold guided tissue engineering of a heterocellular microfluidic device. We investigate two types of cell-laden devices: the first with a 3D microfluidic manifold fully embedded in a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) substrate and the second a channel network on the surface of the PDMS substrate for cell printing directly into device channels. Fully embedded networks are leak-resistant with simplified construction methods. Channels exposed to the surface are used as mold to hold bioprinted cell-laden matrix for controlled cell placement throughout the network from inlet to outlet. The result is a 3D cell-laden microfluidic device with improved leak-resistance (up to 2.0 mL/min), pervasive diffusion and control of internal architecture.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cell-laden microfluidic device construction process overview to leverage PED and replica molding to both place cells during fabrication or guide cells after fabrication

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Fig. 2

Photograph of PED system with annotations (A) screw motor, (B) material inlet, (C) heating element, (D) nozzle, and (E) motion system. Schematic of PED extruder screw with process parameters and extruded filament geometrically annotated. Time-lapse photograph of single-layer scaffold printing.

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Fig. 3

Block diagram of the thermal/chemical cycle to remove PCL pattern from PDMS substrate. The black arrow points to ejection of water and molten PCL. Photographs of the fully cleared manifold perfused by variable dye fluids.

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Fig. 4

PED material delivery system's extruder screw with geometric parameters annotated and modeled as an unrolled helical screw. Photographs present the PED extruder barrel, screw, and die with measurements.

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Fig. 5

(Top) AR2000ex Advanced Rheometer System photographs with PCL pellets loaded on the lower of two Peltier plates. (Bottom) Strain- and temperature-sensitivity of PCL through the functional PED operating windows.

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Fig. 6

Comparison of experimental and derived model (Eq. (14)) results for process control PED process parameter screw rotation speed's effect on the mass flow rate from the PED extruder, where both the heating elements are set to 80 °C and Ø350 μm restrictor die.

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Fig. 7

(a) Profiles of three PED printed PCL filament with the same extruder height above the substrate and variable printhead speed. (b) Open channels in PDMS substrate fabricated by replica molding of PED printed PCL template. Channel Width (W), PED screw speed RPM, and height of the outlet tip above the substrate (E) annotated.

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Fig. 8

PDMS substrate with embedded 3D manifold fabricated by replica molding of three-layer PED printed PCL template. Cross section of the PDMS substrate presents interconnected network of orthographic channels.

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Fig. 9

Time-lapse photo sequence of PDMS microfluidic device being perfused. Each frame contains a top (left) and front (right) views of the device.

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Fig. 10

3D PDMS manifold seeded by injection of cell-laden medium. All four images are the same microscope view field: ((a) and (c)) light and ((b) and (d)) fluorescent images on two focal planes ((a) and (b)) closer and ((c) and (d)) farther focal plane.

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Fig. 11

Cells bioprinted in open channels labeled with fluorescent probes to demonstrate controlled cellular arrangement in the open channel network using single and dual nozzle printing

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