Research Papers

Predicting and Measuring Surface Enlargement in Forward Rod Extrusion

[+] Author and Article Information
Deniz Duran

Research Engineer
Metal Forming Center of Excellence,
Atılım University,
Kızılcaşar Mahallesi,
06836 İncek, Gölbaşı,
Ankara, Turkey
e-mail: deniz.duran@atilim.edu.tr

İzzet Özdemir

Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
İzmir Institute of Technology,
Gülbahçe Kampüsü,
Urla 35430, İzmir, Turkey
e-mail: izzetozdemir@iyte.edu.tr

Manuscript received May 31, 2015; final manuscript received November 30, 2015; published online March 8, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(7), 071005 (Mar 08, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1266; doi: 10.1115/1.4032261 History: Received May 31, 2015; Revised November 30, 2015

Surface enlargement during bulk metal forming processes is one of the key parameters controlling the tribology at the tool-workpiece interface. Not only the surface roughness evolution but also the integrity of the lubricant layer critically reposes on surface enlargement. As an attempt to address this issue, in the first part of this work, a general, deformation gradient based surface enlargement description is implemented in a commercial finite element program. In the second part, forward rod extrusion tests with different area reductions are conducted using customized steel workpieces in which cylindrical copper rods are embedded through the depth. By sectioning the extruded parts and by identifying the position of the copper rods on the lateral surface, average surface enlargement values could be measured locally at different positions along the extrudate. Comparison of experiments and numerical predictions reveal that the deformation gradient based description performs reasonably well in capturing surface enlargement profiles both qualitatively and quantitatively.

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Fig. 2

Discretization of an axisymmetric component by four-node quadrilaterals

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Fig. 1

A deformable body in undeformed and deformed state. Material vectors are mapped by the deformation gradient tensorF.

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Fig. 3

Geometry of the truncated cone and comparison between analytical solution and numerical predictions

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Fig. 4

Surface enlargement in backward can extrusion [14] and comparison between experimental and predicted surface enlargement values

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Fig. 5

Workpiece geometry with copper pins

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Fig. 8

Comparison between experiments and FEA predictions of flowlines (a) φ  = 0.7, (b) φ  = 1.0, and (c) φ= 1.4

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Fig. 9

Force–displacement curves with standard and modified workpieces

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Fig. 10

Experimental versus predicted surface enlargement values for φ  = 0.7

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Fig. 7

Force–displacement curves

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Fig. 11

Experimental versus predicted surface enlargement values for φ  = 1.0

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Fig. 12

Experimental versus predicted surface enlargement values for φ  = 1.4

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Fig. 6

Enlargement of defined areas in forward rod extrusion



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