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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Filament Front Deformation for Direct-Print

[+] Author and Article Information
Muhammad Noman Hasan

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn Science and Engineering
Center (ASEC) 101,
The University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325-3903
e-mail: mnh19@zips.uakron.edu

Morteza Vatani

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn Science and Engineering
Center (ASEC) 101,
The University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325-3903
e-mail: mv35@zips.uakron.edu

Abhilash Chandy

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn Science and Engineering
Center (ASEC) 101,
The University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325-3903
e-mail: ac76@uakron.edu

Jae-Won Choi

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Auburn Science and Engineering
Center (ASEC) 101,
The University of Akron,
Akron, OH 44325-3903
e-mail: jchoi1@uakron.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 30, 2014; final manuscript received April 10, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(1), 011003 (Sep 09, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1452; doi: 10.1115/1.4030431 History: Received August 30, 2014

The purpose of this research is to perform an investigation of continuously dispensed material (or filament) deformation during dispensing. Depending on the material properties, and the process parameters the deformation behavior of the filament changes, so as the formation of the filament front (the front face of the filament, i.e., dispensing material). The focus of this investigation is the study of the evolution of the filament shape for Newtonian fluid experimentally and computationally. The experimental analysis has been performed with commercially available monomers with the help of a screw driven micro dispensing system installed on a high precision xyz translation stage. The imaging system consists of a high resolution CMOS camera. The developed computational model utilizes an adaptive quadtree spatial discretization with piecewise–linear geometrical volume–of–fluid (VOF) method for calculating the volume fraction for this multiphase problem. The model employs the continuum–surface–force model for formulating the surface tension, whereas the height function (HF) to estimate the curvature for tracking the evolution of the filament shape during the deformation. The computational model has been developed using an open source solver, Gerris Flow Solver. The considered governing and process parameters for this investigation are Froude number (Fr), Reynolds number (Re), gap ratio (GR), and velocity ratio (VR). The VR is the ratio of travel velocity to dispensing velocity. The GR is the ratio of filament height to filament diameter. Results have been presented as the interface contour for the filament front. The investigation shows that the results found from the developed model have a good agreement with experimental results, and the deformation phenomena is greatly influenced by the variation of the governing parameters.

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Figures

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup [21] (a) schematic of the experimental setup used (b) snapshot of the dispensing system

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the computational domain for filament dispensing

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Fig. 2

3D structural printing (a) fabrication of a scaffold with instantaneous curing of the dispensed monomer and (b) fabricated scaffold

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the problem definition

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Fig. 8

Comparison of experimental (left) and computational result (right) for filament dispensing

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Fig. 13

Vorticity field and velocity vector plot—dispensing velocity of 4.4 mm/s, substrate velocity 5 mm/s, 0.63 mm gap between nozzle and substrate

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Fig. 5

Grid distribution: AMR at the interface of two phases

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Fig. 6

Development of the filament form the initial diameter and height to its final diameter and height

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Fig. 7

Schematic of the change of initial filament diameter and height during the development of filament

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Fig. 11

Experimental result for SR306F—nozzle orifice height 0.4 mm, nozzle diameter 0.564 mm, dispending velocity at nozzle orifice of 11.0 mm/s, travel velocity (a) 10 mm/s, (b) 15 mm/s, (c) 20 mm/s, (d) 25 mm/s, and (e) 30 mm/s

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Fig. 12

Experimental result for SR306F—nozzle diameter 0.564 mm, dispending velocity at nozzle orifice of 11.0 mm/s, and travel velocity 10 mm/s for nozzle orifice height (a) 0.3 mm, (b) 0.4 mm, and (c) 0.5 mm

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Fig. 9

Validation of the developed model for filament deformation

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Fig. 10

Experimental result for CN309—nozzle orifice height 0.4, nozzle diameter 0.564 mm; for dispending velocity at nozzle orifice of 5.6 mm/s, nozzle travel speed (a) 5 mm/s, (b) 10 mm/s, (c) 15 mm/s; for dispending speed 11.0 mm/s, travel velocity, (d) 10 mm/s, (e) 15 mm/s, and (f) 20 mm/s

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Fig. 14

Velocity field and velocity vector plot—dispensing velocity of 4.4 mm/s, substrate velocity 5 mm/s, 0.63 mm gap between nozzle and substrate

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Fig. 15

Vorticity field with velocity vector for (a) leading and (b) lagging filament and velocity field with velocity vector, (c) leading and (d) lagging filament

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Fig. 16

Effect of Froude number variation on filament deformation

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Fig. 17

Effect of Reynolds number variation on filament deformation

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Fig. 18

Effect of variation of GR on filament deformation

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Fig. 19

Effect of variation of VR on filament deformation

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