Five-axis milling with a ball-end cutter is commonly used to generate a good surface finish on complex parts, such as blades or impellers made of titanium alloy. The five-axis milling cutting process is not straight forward; local cutting conditions depend a lot on the geometrical configuration relating to lead and tilt angles. Furthermore, the surface quality is greatly affected by the cutting conditions that define the milling configuration. This study presents a geometrical model of five-axis milling in order to determine the effective cutting conditions, the milling mode, and the cutter location point. Subsequently, an analysis of surface topography is proposed by using the geometrical model, local criteria, and a principle component analysis of experimental data. The results show the effects of local parameters on the surface roughness, in relation to the lead and tilt angles.