Research Papers

Improvement in Geometrical Accuracy and Mechanical Property for Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Metamorphic Rolling Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Yang Xie

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: xieyang@hust.edu.cn

Haiou Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zholab@hust.edu.cn

Fei Zhou

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zhoufei@hust.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 2, 2015; final manuscript received October 25, 2015; published online June 23, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(11), 111002 (Jun 23, 2016) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1097; doi: 10.1115/1.4032079 History: Received March 02, 2015; Revised October 25, 2015

Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is drawing considerable contemporary interest due to its characteristics of high material utilization, great flexibility in product design, and inherent moldless process. Arc-based AM (AAM) is a promising AM method with high deposition rate and favorable buildup quality. Components made by AAM are fabricated through superimposed weld beads deposited from metal wire. Unlike laser-based additive manufacturing, AAM is more difficult to control. Because of the large energy input of the energy source and the liquidity of the melting metal material, bottleneck problems like shrinkage porosity, cracking, residual stresses, and deformation occur. Resultant poor geometrical accuracy and mechanical property keep AAM from industrial application. Especially in the aerospace industry, structural and mechanical property specifications are stringent and critical. This paper presents a novel hybrid manufacturing method by using hot-rolling process to assist the arc welding to solve the above problems. Initially, a miniature metamorphic rolling mechanism (MRM) was developed using metamorphic mechanism theory. Configuration and topology of the MRM can change according to the feature of the components to roll the top and lateral surfaces of the bead. Subsequently, three single-pass multilayer walls were built, respectively, for comparison. The rolled results show significant improvement in geometrical accuracy of the built features. Tensile test results demonstrate improvement in mechanical properties. The improved mechanical properties of rolled specimens are superior to wrought material in travel direction. Microstructure comparisons indicate columnar grains observed in vertical direction and fusion zones were suppressed. Eventually, fabrication of a large-scale aerospace component validates the feasibility of industry application for the hybrid manufacturing technology.

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Fig. 1

The hybrid manufacturing method: (a) schematic diagram, (b) single-pass wall using three rollers, (c) multipass wall using two rollers, and (d) multipass wall using one roller

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Fig. 2

Mechanical principle diagrams of (a) source-metamorphic mechanism, (b) roller's DOFs and workspace, and (c) metamorphic process

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Fig. 3

Mechanical structure of MRM

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Fig. 4

The distance between two vertical rolls: 10 mm (a), 5 mm (b), and 0 mm (c)

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Fig. 5

The first layer top surface geometry of (a) unrolled and (b) top surface rolled beads

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Fig. 6

The sixteen-layer thin walls (a) without rolling and (b) with top surface rolled

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Fig. 7

Maximum height absolute error of the thin wall

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Fig. 8

The thin wall with lateral surface rolled (a) during the process and (b) with surface cleaned by steel brush

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Fig. 9

Tensile test results of AISI 1045 steel specimens

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Fig. 10

Prior austenite microstructures from vertical section of (a) AAM and (b) hybrid manufacturing and horizontal section of (c) AAM and (d) hybrid manufacturing

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Fig. 11

The large-scale component: (a) 3D model and (b) built feature before postmachining




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