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Research Papers: JOINING

Effect of Cyclic Heat, Humidity, and Joining Method on the Static and Dynamic Performance of Lightweight Multimaterial Single-Lap Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Sayed A. Nassar

Fellow ASME
Fastening and Joining Research Institute (FAJRI),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Oakland University,
Rochester, MI 48309 
e-mail: nassar@oakland.edu

Kaori Sakai

Fastening and Joining Research Institute (FAJRI),
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Oakland University,
Rochester, MI 48309 
e-mail: ksakai@oakland.edu

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 1, 2014; final manuscript received March 10, 2015; published online September 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jingjing Li.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(5), 051026 (Sep 04, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1648; doi: 10.1115/1.4030080 History: Received December 01, 2014

This experimental study investigates the effect of environmental loading and joining methods on the static and dynamic performance of lightweight multimaterial single-lap joints (SLJ). Joint adherend material combinations are divided into two groups; namely, composite-based and steel-based materials that include glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP), steel (St), aluminum (Al), and magnesium (Mg). A commercially available adhesive is selected for the study. Investigated joining methods include bonding-only, bolting-only, and hybrid bonding-and-bolting. Static performance is assessed by the load transfer capacity (LTC) of SLJ after they have been subjected to heat cycling at ambient level of relative humidity, or after heat cycling at high relative humidity. Dynamic performance is measured by durability life (in cycles) of SLJ test samples under a fixed dynamic load ratio in a tensile–tensile fatigue test, after they have been subjected to heat cycling and humidity. The cyclic test load fluctuated between 67.5% and 75% of the static LTC at ambient condition. Sample finding includes the significant effect of heat cycling at an ambient humidity level; it has tripled the LTC of bonded-only composite-to-composite SLJ, relative to their baseline LTC at ambient conditions. Detailed discussion of the results, observations, and conclusions are presented in this paper.

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Figures

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Fig. 8

Effect of environmental heat cycling and humidity on load-deflection behavior: bonded-only steel/steel SLJ

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Fig. 4

Thermotron environmental chamber

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Fig. 3

Cyclic temperature and constant relative humidity profiles (two cycles)

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Fig. 2

Static test setup with MTS 810 Material Testing System

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Fig. 7

Effect of environmental heat cycling and humidity on load-deflection behavior: bonded-only GRFP/Al SLJ

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Fig. 5

Effect of environmental heat cycling and humidity on load-deflection behavior: bonded-only GRFP/GRFP SLJ

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Fig. 6

Effect of environmental heat cycling and humidity on load-deflection behavior: bonded-only GRFP/Mg SLJ

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Fig. 9

Effect of environmental heat cycling and humidity on load-deflection behavior: bonded-only steel/Mg SLJ

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Fig. 10

Effect of environmental heat cycling and humidity on load-deflection behavior: bonded-only steel/Al SLJ

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Fig. 11

Illustration of various FMs for adhesively bonded joints [15]: (a) adhesive failure (ADH), (b) cohesive failure (COH), (c) thin-layer cohesive failure (TLC), (d) fiber-tear failure (FT), (e) light-tear failure (LFT), and (f) stock-break failure (SB)

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Fig. 12

Illustration of FMs of bolted composite joints [16]: (a) net-section failure, (b) bearing failure, (c) TO failure, and (d) bolt shear failure

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Fig. 13

GFRP affected by high relative humidity

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