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Research Papers: JOINING

Thermal Mechanical Modeling of the Plunge Stage During Friction-Stir Welding of Dissimilar Al 6061 to TRIP 780 Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Xun Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: xunxliu@umich.edu

Shuhuai Lan, Jun Ni

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 21, 2014; final manuscript received July 25, 2015; published online September 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Blair E. Carlson.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(5), 051017 (Sep 04, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1691; doi: 10.1115/1.4031188 History: Received December 21, 2014; Revised July 25, 2015

In this study, a coupled thermomechanical model has been developed for the plunge stage of friction-stir welding (FSW) for joining dissimilar Al 6061 to TRIP steel. Governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been formulated for the bulk material and the interface, respectively. Generalized material properties defined with the field variable α are introduced for material identification at different regions. Local instant formulation based on binary phase flow theories has been proposed for developing conservation equations at the interface. These analytical derivations are then implemented into a finite-element model for numerical simulations. In the early stage of plunging, the estimated axial force correlates well with the experimental results, where a short plateau can be observed before the final peak occurs. Discrepancies at the later stage can be attributed to different experimental configurations and related simplified model assumptions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the plunge stage during FSW of dissimilar materials

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Fig. 2

General modeling flow chart for plunge stage of FSW of dissimilar materials

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Fig. 3

Control volume of the Al–Fe interface for conservation equation derivations

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Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the experimental setup for FSW of dissimilar Al 6061 to TRIP steel

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Fig. 5

Detailed dimensions of the FSW tool (unit: mm)

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Fig. 6

Overview of the finite-element model configuration

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Fig. 7

Comparison of axial plunge force between experimental and numerical results

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Fig. 8

Temperature distribution of the workpiece at different plunge depths

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Fig. 9

Stress distribution of the workpiece at different plunge depths

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