Research Papers: JOINING

Analytical Model to Determine the Strength of Form-Fit Connection Joined by Die-Less Hydroforming

[+] Author and Article Information
Christian Weddeling

Institute of Forming Technology and
Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Christian.Weddeling@iul.tu-dortmund.de

Soeren Gies

Institute of Forming Technology and
Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Soeren.Gies@iul.tu-dortmund.de

Nooman Ben Khalifa

Institute of Forming Technology and
Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Nooman.Ben_Khalifa@iul.tu-dortmund.de

A. Erman Tekkaya

Institute of Forming Technology and
Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Erman.Tekkaya@iul.tu-dortmund.de

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 28, 2014; final manuscript received June 10, 2015; published online September 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Yannis Korkolis.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(5), 051014 (Sep 04, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1639; doi: 10.1115/1.4030878 History: Received November 28, 2014

Modern lightweight concept structures are increasingly composed of several dissimilar materials. Due to the different material properties of the joining partners, conventional and widely used joining techniques often reach their technological limits when applied in the manufacturing of such multimaterial structures. This leads to an increasing demand for appropriate joining technologies, like joining by die-less hydroforming (DHF) for connecting tubular workpieces. The present work introduces an analytical model to determine the achievable strength of form-fit connections. This approach, taking into account the material parameters as well as the groove and tube geometry, is based on a membrane analysis assuming constant wall thicknesses. Besides a fundamental understanding of the load transfer mechanism, this analytic approach allows a reliable joining zone design. To validate the model, experimental investigations using aluminum specimens are performed. A mean deviation between the calculated and the measured joint strength of about 19% was found. This denotes a good suitability of the analytical approach for the design process of the joining zone.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mori, K. , Bay, N. , Fratini, L. , Fabrizio, M. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2013, “Joining By Plastic Deformation,” CIRP Ann.—Manuf. Technol., 62(2), pp. 673–694. [CrossRef]
Krips, M. , and Podhorsky, M. , 1976, “Hydraulisches Aufweiten—Ein Neues Verfahren zur Befestigung von Rohren,” VGB Kraftwerkstech., 56(7), pp. 456–464.
Yokell, S. , 1992, “Expanded, and Welded-and-Expanded Tube-to-Tubesheet Joints,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 114(2), pp. 157–165. [CrossRef]
Brandes, K. , 1998, “Kraftschlüssige Welle-Nabe-Verbindungen Mit Hoher Tragfähigkeit Durch Innenhochdruckumformen,” Welle-Nabe-Verbindungen, Systemkomponenten im Wandel, Tagung Fulda, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, pp. 277–284.
Andreas, R. , Hense, R. , Marre, M. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2013, “Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum lokalen Fügen und/oder zum lokalen Umformen von Hohlprofilen mittels Hochdruck,” German Patent DE 10 2010 012 452 B8.
Jantscha, R. , 1929, “Über das Einwalzen und Einpressen von Kessel-und Überhitzerrohre bei Verwendung Verschiedener Werkstoffe,” Dr.-Ing. thesis, TH Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
Marré, M. , 2009, “Grundlagen der Prozessgestaltung für das Fügen durch Weiten mit Innenhochdruck,” Dr.-Ing. thesis., Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight Construction, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund, Germany.
Gies, S. , Weddeling, C. , Kwiatkowski, L. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2013, “Groove Filling Characteristics and Strength of Form-Fit Joints Produced by Die-Less Hydroforming,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 554–557, Trans Tech Publications, Pfaffikon, Switzerland, pp. 671–680.
Yokell, S. , 1990, A Working Guide to Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Podhorsky, M. , and Krips, H. , 1990, Wärmetauscher. Aktuelle Probleme der Konstruktion und Berechnung, Vulkan-Verlag, Essen, Germany.
Pryzybylski, W. , Wojciechowski, J. , Marré, M. , and Kleiner, M. , 2007, “Influence of Design Characteristics and Manufacturing Process Parameters on the Strength of Tubular Aluminium Joints Produced by Hydroforming,” Arch. Technol. Masz. I Automatyzacji, 27(1), pp. 153–167.
Gies, S. , Weddeling, C. , Marré, M. , Kwiatkowski, L. , and Tekkaya, A. E. , 2012, “Analytic Prediction of the Process Parameters for Form-Fit Joining by Die-Less Hydroforming,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 504–506, Trans Tech Publications, Pfaffikon, Switzerland, pp. 393–398.
Garzke, M. , 2001, “Auslegung Innenhochdruckgefügter Pressverbindungen Unter Drehmomentbelastung,” Dr.-Ing. thesis, TU Clausthal, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Weddeling, C. , Woodward, S. T. , Marré, M. , Nellesen, J. , Psyk, V. , Tekkaya, A. E. , and Tillmann, W. , 2011, “Influence of Groove Characteristics on Strength of Form-Fit Joints,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 211(5), pp. 925–935. [CrossRef]
Marciniak, Z. , Duncan, J. L. , and Hu, S. J. , 2002, Mechanics of Sheet Metal Forming, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Lange, K. , 1990, Umformtechnik—Handbuch für Industrie und Wissenschaft, Volume 3: Blechbearbeitung, Springer-Verlage, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Storoschew, M. W. , and Popow, E. A. , 1968, Grundlagen der Umformtechnik, VEB Verlag Technik, Berlin.
Golovashchenko, S. , 2001, “Methodology of Design of Pulsed Electromagnetic Joining of Tubes,” TMS Symposium Innovations in Processing and Manufacturing of Sheet Materials, New Orleans, LA, pp. 283–299.
Popow, E. A. , 1977, Fundamentals in Sheet Metal Forming Theory, Mashinostroenie, Moscow, Russia.
Grote, K. H. , and Antonsson, E. K. , 2009, Springer Handbook of Mechanical Engineering, Springer, New York.
Armstrong, J. S. , 1985, Long-Range Forecasting: From Crystal Ball to Computer, Wiley, New York.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Parameters and assumptions of the analytical prediction of the forming pressure pi developed by Gies et al. [12] and (b) determination of the current forming height h∧

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Process sequence of DHF [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Industrial examples: (a) bundle heat exchanger, (b) camshaft, and (c) lightweight frame structure of the Collaborative Research Center SFB TR10

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Analytically determined forming pressures compared to experimental results [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Assumed inward bending in the groove center during pull-out and (b) geometrical assumptions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Specimens used for the experimental validation [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental setup used for the DHF joining experiments [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Typical pull-out curve of a form-fit connection featuring a groove width of 12 mm and a groove depth of 2 mm joined by DHF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Measurement of the groove filling [8]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Prediction of meridional stress increase Δσϕ due to a change in curvature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Determination of the principle radius R2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Calculation of the angle α [8] and the radius Rr1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of analytically predicted (Eq. (47)) and experimentally determined specific joint strength




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In