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Research Papers: FORMING

Formability Enhancement in Titanium Tube-Flaring by Manipulating the Deformation Path

[+] Author and Article Information
Chetan P. Nikhare

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Penn State Erie—The Behrend College,
Erie, PA 16563
e-mail: cpn10@psu.edu

Yannis P. Korkolis

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824
e-mail: yannis.korkolis@unh.edu

Brad L. Kinsey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824
e-mail: bkinsey@unh.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 14, 2015; final manuscript received April 24, 2015; published online September 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jingjing Li.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(5), 051006 (Sep 04, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4030512 History: Received January 14, 2015

The tube flaring process has been traditionally used to expand one end of a tube without changing its cross-sectional area. This simple process typically forms the product using a single punch. To delay failure and enhance formability, a two-step flaring process can be used. For example, if a significant elliptical flared shape is attempted in a one-step process, a necking/tearing failure would occur on the major axis of the ellipse. However, if a two-step process, starting with a mildly elliptical punch and followed by the final, sharply elliptical punch is used instead, the desired elliptical shape can be achieved. In this paper, the effects of the punch geometry of the first step on the deformation paths are numerically analyzed. By manipulating the deformation path, failure can be delayed so that higher formability is achieved. The numerical model is validated by comparison with experimental results.

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Figures

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Fig. 7

Punch force–displacement curves for the tube during steps 1 and 2 of the process, for the five cases considered

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Fig. 6

Flared tube shape; after steps 1 and 2 for all cases. Scale is the same in all snapshots. The right column results were taken at the onset of necking in each case.

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Fig. 5

Punch views with geometrical parameters. Front or major axis view (left) and side or minor axis view (right).

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Fig. 4

Force–displacement curve for one-step tube flaring

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Fig. 3

Flared tube from one-step process (units in megapascal)

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup [29]

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Fig. 1

Stress–strain curve of Ti–6Al–4V [29]

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Fig. 8

Tube flaring for case 5 with one-step process to final elliptical shape. (a) Hoop plastic strain and (b) strain paths of two elements from (a) and intermediate configurations.

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Fig. 9

Tube flaring for case 1 with two-step process to final elliptical shape. (a) Hoop plastic strain and (b) strain paths of two elements from (a) and intermediate configurations.

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Fig. 10

(a)–(e) Strain paths for all five cases

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Fig. 11

(a)–(e) Thickness strain versus punch displacement for the five cases considered, showing the onset of necking for the two-step cases, the second punch is offset to 4 mm

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