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Research Papers: FORMING

Process Limits of Extrusion of Multimaterial Components

[+] Author and Article Information
Nooman Ben Khalifa

Institute of Forming Technology
and Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Nooman.Ben_Khalifa@iul.tu-dortmund.de

Annika Foydl

Institute of Forming Technology
and Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Annika.Foydl@ tu-dortmund.de

Daniel Pietzka

Institute of Forming Technology
and Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Daniel.Pietzka@ tu-dortmund.de

Andreas Jäger

Institute of Forming Technology
and Lightweight Construction,
TU Dortmund University,
Baroper Strasse 303,
Dortmund 44227, Germany
e-mail: Andreas.Jaeger@ tu-dortmund.de

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 22, 2014; final manuscript received July 15, 2015; published online September 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Yannis Korkolis.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(5), 051001 (Sep 04, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1696; doi: 10.1115/1.4031091 History: Received December 22, 2014

Three innovative extrusion processes for manufacturing of multimaterial parts are discussed: co-extrusion of discontinuously steel reinforced aluminum profiles, composite extrusion of continuously steel wire reinforced profiles, and composite rod extrusion. In the first two processes, the embedded steel elements are not deformable; while in the case of composite rod extrusion, both materials are deformed. By means of experimental and numerical analyses, the process parameters that mainly influence the reinforcement ratio, the extrusion force as well as the material distribution are analyzed. On the basis of the above, the analytical approaches are deduced to describe the process limits for the proposed technologies. The paper closes with examples of applications regarding the lightweight requirements as well as functional integrations by forming multimaterials.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 5

Influence of the material flow on the distance between the cylindrical reinforcing elements during extrusion

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Fig. 6

Material flow by extrusion

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the calculated distances of the reinforcement elements with the experimentally measured distances

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Fig. 3

Extruded parts with different sphere diameters

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Fig. 2

Definition of the extrusion ratio and the distance between the reinforcing elements

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Fig. 1

The analyzed extrusion processes for manufacturing multimaterial profiles and components

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Fig. 8

Development of cavity during composite extrusion of discontinuously reinforced profiles

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the analytical approach with the numerical results considering sticking conditions between the reinforcing elements and the workpiece material

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Fig. 9

Influence of the reinforcing elements on the ram force

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Fig. 10

Influence of the reinforcing wires on the material flow during extrusion

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Fig. 11

Simplified numerical model for composite extrusion of continuously reinforced profiles

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Fig. 12

(a) Ram force at different reinforcement volumes and (b) influence of friction and extrusion ratio on the ram force increase

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Fig. 13

Parameters for the analytical model

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Fig. 14

Comparison of the analytical approach and the numerical results without considering friction between the reinforcing elements and the workpiece material

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Fig. 17

Longitudinal cross section of extruded bi-material rod (material: plasticine, hard core material, and soft sleeve material) [12]

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Fig. 18

Finite element model: (a) two deformable billets and (b) single deformable billet with graded material properties

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Fig. 19

Cover-off of the core material by the sleeve material in the die orifice: (a) FE-simulation and (b) experiment

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Fig. 20

The wall thickness of the sleeve material along the extruded profile

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Fig. 21

(a) Simulation of profile's tip and (b) experiment [11]

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Fig. 22

(a) Design of initial billet geometry and (b) numerically determined wall thickness of the sleeve material in the profile

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Fig. 23

(a) Extrusion press and (b) transverse weld within the extrudate, poor bonding

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Fig. 24

(a) Cross section of extruded and forged composite rod and (b) composite steering tie rod manufactured by co-extrusion and subsequent hot forging [11]

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