0
Research Papers

A Smart Cloud-Based System for the WEEE Recovery/Recycling

[+] Author and Article Information
Xi Vincent Wang

Department of Production Engineering,
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Brinellvägen 68,
Stockholm 114 28, Sweden
e-mail: wangxi@kth.se

Brenda N. Lopez N

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment
Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC),
Room 813, School of the Environment,
Tsinghua University,
Haidian District,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: loujl10@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

Winifred Ijomah

Design, Manufacture and Engineering
Management (DMEM),
Faculty of Engineering,
University of Strathclyde,
131 Rotten Row,
Glasgow G4 0NG, UK
e-mail: w.l.ijomah@strath.ac.uk

Lihui Wang

Department of Production Engineering,
KTH Royal Institute of Technology,
Brinellvägen 68,
Stockholm 114 28, Sweden
e-mail: lihuiw@kth.se

Jinhui Li

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment
Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC),
Room 804, School of the Environment,
Tsinghua University,
Haidian District,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: jinhui@tsinghua.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 14, 2014; final manuscript received March 30, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(6), 061010 (Sep 09, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1531; doi: 10.1115/1.4030304 History: Received October 14, 2014

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is both valuable and harmful since it contains a large number of profitable and hazardous materials and elements at the same time. At component level, many parts of the discarded equipment are still functional and recoverable. Thus, it is necessary to develop a distributed and intelligent system to support WEEE component recovery and recycling. In recent years, the Cloud concept has gained increasing popularity since it provides a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that integrates various resources over the network. Cloud manufacturing systems are proposed worldwide to support operational manufacturing processes. In this research, Cloud manufacturing is further extended to the WEEE recovery and recycling context. The Cloud services are applied in WEEE recovery and recycling processes by tracking and management services. These services include all the stakeholders from the beginning to the end of life of the electric and electronic equipment. A Cloud-based WEEE recovery system is developed to provide modularized recovery services on the Cloud. A data management system is developed as well, which maintains the knowledge throughout the product lifecycle. A product tracking mechanism is also proposed with the help of the Quick Respond code method.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2012, “Statistics on the Management of Used and End-Of-Life Electronics,” http://www.epa.gov/wastes/conserve/materials/ecycling/manage.htm
Li, J. , Lopez, N. B. N. , Liu, L. , Zhao, N. , Yu, K. , and Zheng, L. , 2013, “Regional or Global WEEE Recycling. Where to go?,” Waste Manage., 33(4), pp. 923–934. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , Duan, H. , and Shi, P. , 2011, “Heavy Metal Contamination of Surface Soil in Electronic Waste Dismantling Area: Site Investigation and Source-Apportionment Analysis,” Waste Manage. Res., 29(7), pp. 727–738. [CrossRef]
Sepúlveda, A. , Schluep, M. , Renaud, F. G. , Streicher, M. , Kuehr, R. , Hagelüken, C. , and Gerecke, A. C. , 2010, “A Review of the Environmental Fate and Effects of Hazardous Substances Released From Electrical and Electronic Equipments During Recycling: Examples From China and India,” Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 30(1), pp. 28–41. [CrossRef]
Yang, X. , Sun, L. , Xiang, J. , Hu, S. , and Su, S. , 2012, “Pyrolysis and Dehalogenation of Plastics From Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): A Review,” Waste Manage., 33(2), pp. 462–473. [CrossRef]
Leung, A. , Cai, Z. W. , and Wong, M. H. , 2006, “Environmental Contamination From Electronic Waste Recycling at Guiyu, Southeast China,” J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manage., 8(1), pp. 21–33. [CrossRef]
Lopez, B. N. , Man, Y. B. , Zhao, Y. G. , Zheng, J. S. , Leung, A. O. W. , Yao, J. , and Wong, M. H. , 2011, “Major Pollutants in Soils of Abandoned Agricultural Land Contaminated by E-Waste Activities in Hong Kong,” Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 61(1), pp. 101–114. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wu, J.-P. , Luo, X.-J. , Zhang, Y. , Luo, Y. , Chen, S.-J. , Mai, B.-X. , and Yang, Z.-Y. , 2008, “Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Wild Aquatic Species From an Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Recycling Site in South China,” Environ. Int., 34(8), pp. 1109–1113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Deng, W. , Zheng, J. , Bi, X. , Fu, J. , and Wong, M. , 2007, “Distribution of PBDEs in Air Particles From an Electronic Waste Recycling Site Compared With Guangzhou and Hong Kong, South China,” Environ. Int., 33(8), pp. 1063–1069. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ni, K. , Lu, Y. , Wang, T. , Kannan, K. , Gosens, J. , Xu, L. , Li, Q. , Wang, L. , and Liu, S. , 2013, “A Review of Human Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in China,” Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 216(6), pp. 607–623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhao, G. , Wang, Z. , Zhou, H. , and Zhao, Q. , 2009, “Burdens of PBBs, PBDEs, and PCBs in Tissues of the Cancer Patients in the E-Waste Disassembly Sites in Zhejiang, China,” Sci. Total Environ., 407(17), pp. 4831–4837. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dimitrakakis, E. , Janz, A. , Bilitewski, B. , and Gidarakos, E. , 2009, “Small WEEE: Determining Recyclables and Hazardous Substances in Plastics,” J. Hazard. Mater., 161(2), pp. 913–919. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ongondo, F. , Williams, I. , Dietrich, J. , and Carroll, C. , 2013, “ICT Reuse in Socio-Economic Enterprises,” Waste Manage., 33(12), pp. 2600–2606. [CrossRef]
Goodship, V. , and Stevels, A. , 2012, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Handbook, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge.
BS 8887-211, 2012, Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly and End-of-Life Processing (MADE)—Specification for Reworking and Remarketing of Computing Hardware, British Standards Institution, London.
Ijomah, W. , McMahon, C. , Hammond, G. , and Newman, S. , 2007, “Development of Robust Design-For-Remanufacturing Guidelines to Further the Aims of Sustainable Development,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 45(18–19), pp. 4513–4536. [CrossRef]
Sobolewski, M. , 2012, “Object-Oriented Service Clouds for Transdisciplinary Computing,” Cloud Computing and Services Science, Springer, Cham Heidelberg, New York, Dordrecht, London, pp. 3–31.
Zhang, L. , Luo, Y. , Tao, F. , Li, B. H. , Ren, L. , Zhang, X. , Guo, H. , Cheng, Y. , Hu, A. , and Liu, Y. , 2014, “Cloud Manufacturing: A New Manufacturing Paradigm,” Enterp. Inf. Syst., 8(2), pp. 167–187. [CrossRef]
Wu, D. , Rosen, D. W. , Wang, L. , and Schaefer, D. , 2015, “Cloud-Based Design and Manufacturing: A New Paradigm in Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation,” Comput. Aided Des., 59, pp. 1–14. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , 2013, “Machine Availability Monitoring and Machining Process Planning Towards Cloud Manufacturing,” CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol., 6(4), pp. 263–273. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. V. , and Xu, X. , 2013, “ICMS: A Cloud-Based Manufacturing System,” Cloud Manufacturing: Distributed Computing Technologies for Global and Sustainable Manufacturing, W. Li , and J. Mehnen , eds., Springer, London, UK, pp. 1–22.
Wang, X. V. , and Wang, L. , 2014, “From Cloud Manufacturing to Cloud Remanufacturing: A Cloud-Based Approach for WEEE Recovery,” Manuf. Lett., 2(4), pp. 91–95. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Wang, X. V. , Gao, L. , and Váncza, J. , 2014, “A Cloud-Based Approach for WEEE Remanufacturing,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 63(1), pp. 409–412. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. V. , and Xu, X. , 2013, “An Interoperable Solution for Cloud Manufacturing,” Rob. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 29(4), pp. 232–247. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. V. , and Xu, X. , 2014, “Virtualize Manufacturing Capabilities in the Cloud: Requirements and Architecture,” Int. J. Manuf. Res., 9(4), pp. 348–368. [CrossRef]
Xu, X. , 2012, “From Cloud Computing to Cloud Manufacturing,” Rob. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 28(1), pp. 75–86. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , 2009, “Web-Based Decision Making for Collaborative Manufacturing,” Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 22(4), pp. 334–344. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , 2008, “Wise-ShopFloor: An Integrated Approach for Web-Based Collaborative Manufacturing,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., Part C: Appl. Rev., 38(4), pp. 562–573. [CrossRef]
Hao, Q. , Shen, W. , and Wang, L. , 2005, “Towards a Cooperative Distributed Manufacturing Management Framework,” Comput. Ind., 56(1), pp. 71–84. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Shen, W. , and Lang, S. , 2004, “Wise-ShopFloor: A Web-Based and Sensor-Driven e-Shop Floor*,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 4(1), pp. 56–60. [CrossRef]
Wang, L. , Wong, B. , Shen, W. , and Lang, S. , 2002, “A Java 3D-Enabled Cyber Workspace,” Commun. ACM, 45(11), pp. 45–49. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. C. , Li, J. , Shrivastava, P. , Whitley, A. , and Merchant, M. E. , 2004, “A Web-Based System for Reverse Manufacturing and Product Environmental Impact Assessment Considering End-Of-Life Dispositions,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 53(1), pp. 5–8. [CrossRef]
Fidan, I. , Roush, E. M. , Tumkor, S. , and Kraft, R. P. , 2004, “Intelligent Simulation Environment for Electronics Remanufacturing Systems,” Proceedings of the Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium, IEEE/CPMT/SEMI 29th International, IEEE, pp. 160–164.
Toyasaki, F. , Wakolbinger, T. , and Kettinger, W. J. , 2013, “The Value of Information Systems for Product Recovery Management,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 51(4), pp. 1214–1235. [CrossRef]
Koh, S. , Gunasekaran, A. , and Tseng, C. , 2012, “Cross-Tier Ripple and Indirect Effects of Directives WEEE and RoHS on Greening a Supply Chain,” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 140(1), pp. 305–317. [CrossRef]
Tompson, L. , and Chainey, S. , 2011, “Profiling Illegal Waste Activity: Using Crime Scripts as a Data Collection and Analytical Strategy,” Eur. J. Crim. Policy Res., 17(3), pp. 179–201. [CrossRef]
van Schaik, A. , and Reuter, M. A. , 2010, “Dynamic Modelling of E-Waste Recycling System Performance Based on Product Design,” Miner. Eng., 23(3), pp. 192–210. [CrossRef]
Yang, X. , Moore, P. , and Chong, S. K. , 2009, “Intelligent Products: From Lifecycle Data Acquisition to Enabling Product-Related Services,” Comput. Ind., 60(3), pp. 184–194. [CrossRef]
Kuo, T. C. , 2010, “The Construction of a Collaborative-Design Platform to Support Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Recycling,” Rob. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 26(1), pp. 100–108. [CrossRef]
Rahimifard, S. , Bakar, A. , and Williams, D. , 2009, “Recycling Process Planning for the End-Of-Life Management of Waste From Electrical and Electronic Equipment,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 58(1), pp. 5–8. [CrossRef]
Gamberini, R. , Gebennini, E. , Manzini, R. , and Ziveri, A. , 2010, “On the Integration of Planning and Environmental Impact Assessment for a WEEE Transportation Network—A Case Study,” Resour., Conserv. Recycl., 54(11), pp. 937–951. [CrossRef]
Achillas, C. , Vlachokostas, C. , Moussiopoulos, Ν. , and Banias, G. , 2010, “Decision Support System for the Optimal Location of Electrical and Electronic Waste Treatment Plants: A Case Study in Greece,” Waste Manage., 30(5), pp. 870–879. [CrossRef]
Achillas, C. , Vlachokostas, C. , Aidonis, D. , Moussiopoulos, Ν. , Iakovou, E. , and Banias, G. , 2010, “Optimising Reverse Logistics Network to Support Policy-Making in the Case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment,” Waste Manage., 30(12), pp. 2592–2600. [CrossRef]
Che, Z. , 2010, “Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Particle Swarm Optimisation for Balanced and Defective Supply Chain Problems Considering WEEE/RoHS Directives,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 48(11), pp. 3355–3381. [CrossRef]
ISO 10303-1:1994, 1994, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration—Product Data Representation and Exchange—Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
ISO 14649-1, 2003, Industrial Automation Systems and Integration—Physical Device Control—Data Model for Computerized Numerical Controllers—Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
Swanson, L. , 2001, “Linking Maintenance Strategies to Performance,” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 70(3), pp. 237–244. [CrossRef]
ISO/IEC 18004, 2006, Information Technology—Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques—QR Code 2005 Bar Code Symbology Specification, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
CHR, 2014, “Global End-Use Breakdown of the Lead Consumption,” personal communication.
International Lead Association ILA, 2014, “Lead Recycling, Sustainability in Action. Lead Action 21,” http://www.ila-lead.org/UserFiles/File/ILA9927% 20FS_Recycling_V06.pdf
Dittrich, M. , and Bringezu, S. , 2010, “The Physical Dimension of International Trade: Part 1: Direct Global Flows Between 1962 and 2005,” Ecol. Econ., 69(9), pp. 1838–1847. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

WEEE physical flow and UEEE

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cloud-based WEEE data maintenance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

WR2Cloud business model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Three-layer WR2Cloud

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

GREENet data model set

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

QR code enabled Cloud service

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

QR code processors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

WEEE management module

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Lead products Cloud

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In