This paper provides a methodology to develop a thermal model for predicting the temperature rise during surgical drilling of bone. The thermal model consists of heat generation calculation based on classical machining theory and development of governing equations of heat transfer individually for drill bit and bone. These two governing equations are coupled by shared boundary conditions. Finite-difference method is utilized to approximate the thermal model and effects of drill bit geometry and process parameters on temperature rise are evaluated by comparison with experiments. The simulated results fit well with experiments with respect to different drill bit geometry (<3.02 °C) and process parameters (<4.32 °C).