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Research Papers

Analysis of Fiber Optic Sensor to Measure Velocities During High Deformation Rate Material Forming Processes

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Thibaudeau, B. Turner, T. Gross

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824

B. L. Kinsey

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of New Hampshire,
Durham, NH 03824
e-mail: bkinsey@unh.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 23, 2014; final manuscript received January 9, 2015; published online March 5, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Robert Gao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(3), 031013 (Mar 05, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1129; doi: 10.1115/1.4029650 History: Received March 23, 2014

Previous methods of measuring high velocities, e.g., during electromagnetic forming (EMF) and magnetic pulse welding processes where the workpiece is deforming, include photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV), laser micrometers, and high speed photography. In this paper, an alternative method is presented, implementing a fiber optic, reflectance dependent sensor. The sensor is shown to be an attractive, low purchase cost solution to measure high velocities. Data are shown with respect to sensor characterization including various surface reflectivity values, curvatures, and misalignments; implementation in two EMF/welding processes; and verification with high velocity PDV measurements. The sensor system is one twentieth the purchase cost of a PDV system, and yet measures velocities accurately (using PDV measurements as the reference) to at least 150 m/s provided that local curvature is not extreme and the displacement is less than approximately 27 mm. Sensor performance is also enhanced by the use of retroreflective tape, which is shown to increase the displacement range by 9×, decrease sensitivity to misalignment, and increase repeatability and ease of implementation.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sample assemblies joined by MPW from PST products: (a) crimping of stranded copper wire, (b) dissimilar material drive shafts, and (c) copper sheet welded between two aluminum sheets [1]

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Fig. 2

Diagram of the EMF & MPW process. Adapted from Ref. [7].

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Fig. 3

PDV operation schematic [10]

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Fig. 4

Reflectance dependant, fiber optic sensor operation schematic [15]

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Fig. 5

Experimental setup for sensor characterization

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Fig. 6

Calibration curve for flat, mill-finish aluminum surface

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Fig. 7

Experimental setups for angular effects: (a) flat surface, (b) horizontal cylinder, and (c) vertical cylinder

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Fig. 8

Gap distance error induced from angular effects for three experiments: flat surface, horizontal cylinder, and vertical cylinder

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Fig. 9

Calibration to flat surface with retroreflective tape applied and a with mill-finish aluminum surface

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Fig. 10

Angular effects on flat surface with retroreflective tape applied at different gap distances and a mill-finish aluminum surface

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Fig. 11

Experimental setup for UPA flat sheet forming tests [18]

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Fig. 12

Velocity results for 1mm sheet Al 6061-T6 forming at (a) 3.6 kJ, (b) 6 kJ, and (c) 8.4 kJ discharge energies, measured with the fiber optic sensor and the PDV system

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Fig. 13

(a) Front view and (b) side view of deformed workpiece with a 6.0 kJ discharge, with the location of the fiber optic sensor indicated

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Fig. 14

Deformed 1 mm 6061-T6 workpieces from a 3.6 kJ, 6 kJ, and 8.4 kJ discharge energies, showing (a) front view (i.e., view normal to coil axis) and (b) side view (i.e., coil turns across photograph)

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Fig. 15

(a) Experimental setup for tube/shaft welding in forming box and (b) cross section view of single turn coil (dimensions are in mm)

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Fig. 16

Velocity results for 25.4 mm diameter, .89 mm wall, 2024-T3 tubes at various energy levels, measured with (a) the fiber optic sensor and (b) the PDV system

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Fig. 17

Deformed workpiece with a 9.6 kJ discharge, with the location of the fiber optic sensor indicated

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