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Research Papers

Prediction of Residual Stresses During Gas Nitriding of H13 Steels Using Phase Field Approach

[+] Author and Article Information
Syed Sohail Akhtar

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: ssakhtar@kfupm.edu.sa

Abba Abdulhamid Abubakar

Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: abbamec@yahoo.com

Abul Fazal M. Arif

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering Department,
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,
Dhahran 31261, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
e-mail: afmarif@kfupm.edu.sa

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received October 3, 2014; final manuscript received May 26, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(1), 011008 (Sep 09, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1504; doi: 10.1115/1.4030755 History: Received October 03, 2014

Gas nitriding is a common surface treatment practice to improve the wear resistance of AISI H13 hot extrusion die cavities. However, due to the presence of complex and sharp features of die cavities, it has been observed that nonuniform nitride layer develops in these regions. Moreover, the formation of compound layer in the surface vicinity of nitrided surfaces leads to the development of transformation-induced stresses. The present work presents the application of the phase field method in predicting the evolution of the nitride layers and associated residual stresses during the gas nitriding of AISI H13 tool steels. Nitriding process is modeled and simulated in line with experimental setup, which uses automated two-stage controlled nitriding process. Some representative samples having commonly used geometric features are manufactured and nitrided for validation purpose. Both experimental and numerical results are found in close agreement in terms of nitrogen concentration and corresponding microhardness profiles. The results show that high stresses are induced at the surface due to formation of the nitride layers, and these stresses are found to be higher at the sharp corners. In view of the current results, some process and design strategies are suggested for improved and more effective nitriding treatment of hot extrusion dies used in the industry.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sample after EDM wire cutting. Profile and features to be studied are highlighted. (Dimensions are in mm).

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Fig. 2

In-process variations of nitriding potential, Kn, during two-stage nitriding

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Fig. 3

Controlled nitrogen concentration calibrated according to Fig. 2

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Fig. 4

Computational domain for the analysis

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Fig. 5

(a) Optical micrograph of nitrided cross section of feature C1 and (b) SEM of nitrided cross section of feature C3

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Fig. 6

Vickers hardness versus depth profiles of nitrided cross-section

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Fig. 7

Nitrogen diffusion depth profiles at various corner points

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Fig. 8

Diffusion of nitrogen at the selected corner section points

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Fig. 9

Von-Mises stress at the selected corner points

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Fig. 10

The evolution of the phase field during process

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Fig. 11

Variation of concentration field during the process

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Fig. 12

Transformation kinetics for growth of ε-phase

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Fig. 13

Evolution of the compound layer at flat region

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Fig. 14

Evolution of the compound layer at (a) ROC point and (b) right-inner-corner (RIC) point

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Fig. 15

Evolution of the compound layer at (a) AIC point and (b) acute-inner-corner point

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Fig. 16

Evolution of the compound layer at (a) OOC point and (b) OIC point

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Fig. 17

Evolution of the compound layer at (a) outer-fillet corner (OFC) point and (b) inner-fillet-corner (IFC) point

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Fig. 18

Normalized displacement in X direction

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Fig. 19

Normalized displacement in Y direction

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Fig. 20

Transformation-induced stress at flat region

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Fig. 21

Transformation-induced stresses at (a) ROC point and (b) right-inner-corner point

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Fig. 22

Transformation-induced stresses at (a) AOC points and (b) AIC points

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Fig. 23

Transformation-induced stresses at (a) OOC points and (b) OIC points

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Fig. 24

Transformation-induced stresses at (a) OFC point and (b) IFC point

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