Research Papers

Fracture Mechanics Model of Needle Cutting Tissue

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew C. Barnett

Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: acb279@psu.edu

Yuan-Shin Lee

Department of Industrial
and Systems Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: yslee@ncsu.edu

Jason Z. Moore

Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jzm14@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 3, 2014; final manuscript received April 2, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Yong Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(1), 011005 (Sep 09, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1458; doi: 10.1115/1.4030374 History: Received September 03, 2014

This work develops a needle insertion force model based on fracture mechanics, which incorporates the fracture toughness, shear modulus, and friction force of the needle and tissue. Ex vivo tissue experiments were performed to determine these mechanical tissue properties. A double insertion of the needle into the tissue was utilized to determine the fracture toughness. The shear modulus was found by applying an Ogden fit to the stress–strain curve of the tissue achieved through tension experiments. The frictional force was measured by inserting the needle through precut tissue. Results show that the force model predicts within 0.2 N of experimental needle insertion force and the fracture toughness is primarily affected by the needle diameter and needle edge geometry. On average, the tearing force was found to account for 61% of the total insertion force, the spreading force to account for 18%, and the friction force to account for the remaining 21%.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Abolhassani, N. , Patel, R. , and Moallem, M. , 2007, “Needle Insertion Into Soft Tissue: A Survey,” Med. Eng. Phys., 29(4), pp. 413–431. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Egekvist, H. , Bjerring, P. , and Arendt-Nielsen, L. , 1999, “Pain and Mechanical Injury of Human Skin Following Needle Insertions,” Eur. J. Pain, 3(1), pp. 41–49. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dimaio, S. P. , and Salcudean, S. E. , 2003, “Needle Insertion Modeling and Simulation,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 19(5), pp. 864–875. [CrossRef]
Ehmann, K. , and Malukhin, K. , 2012, “A Generalized Analytical Model of the Cutting Angles of a Biopsy Needle Tip,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 134(6), p. 061001. [CrossRef]
Moore, J. Z. , Zhang, Q. H. , Mcgill, C. S. , Zheng, H. J. , Mclaughlin, P. W. , and Shih, A. J. , 2010, “Modeling of the Plane Needle Cutting Edge Rake and Inclination Angles for Biopsy,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(5), p. 051005. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. C. , Tai, B. L. , Chen, R. K. , and Shih, A. J. , 2013, “The Needle With Lancet Point: Geometry for Needle Tip Grinding and Tissue Insertion Force,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(4), p. 041010. [CrossRef]
Moore, J. Z. , Mclaughlin, P. W. , and Shih, A. J. , 2012, “Novel Needle Cutting Edge Geometry for End-Cut Biopsy,” Med. Phys., 39(1), pp. 99–108. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Okamura, A. M. , Simone, C. , and O'leary, M. D. , 2004, “Force Modeling for Needle Insertion Into Soft Tissue,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 51(10), pp. 1707–1716. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Vedrine, L. , Prais, W. , Laurent, P. E. , Raynal-Olive, C. , and Fantino, M. , 2003, “Improving Needle-Point Sharpness in Prefillable Syringes,” Med. Device Technol., 14(4), pp. 32–35. [PubMed]
Davis, S. P. , Landis, B. J. , Adams, Z. H. , Allen, M. G. , and Prausnitz, M. R. , 2004, “Insertion of Microneedles Into Skin: Measurement and Prediction of Insertion Force and Needle Fracture Force,” J. Biomech., 37(8), pp. 1155–1163. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kim, Y. C. , Park, J. H. , and Prausnitz, M. R. , 2012, “Microneedles for Drug and Vaccine Delivery,” Adv. Drug Delivery Rev., 64(14), pp. 1547–1568. [CrossRef]
Han, P. D. , and Ehmann, K. , 2013, “Study of the Effect of Cannula Rotation on Tissue Cutting for Needle Biopsy,” Med. Eng. Phys., 35(11), pp. 1584–1590. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wedlick, T. R. , and Okamura, A. M. , 2012, “Characterization of Robotic Needle Insertion and Rotation in Artificial and Ex Vivo Tissues,” 4th IEEE RAS and EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics (BioRob), Rome, Italy, June 24–27, pp. 62–68.
Barnett, A. C. , Wolkowicz, K. , and Moore, J. Z. , 2014, “Vibrating Needle Cutting Force,” ASME Paper No. V002T02A025.
Begg, N. D. M. , and Slocum, A. H. , 2014, “Audible Frequency Vibration of Puncture-Access Medical Devices,” Med. Eng. Phys., 36(3), pp. 371–377. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Huang, Y. C. , Tsai, M. C. , and Lin, C. H. , 2012, “A Piezoelectric Vibration-Based Syringe for Reducing Insertion Force,” International Symposium on Ultrasound in the Control of Industrial Processes (UCIP), 42, pp. 1–4
Izumi, H. , Yajima, T. , Aoyagi, S. , Tagawa, N. , Arai, Y. , and Hirata, M. , 2008, “Combined Harpoonlike Jagged Microneedles Imitating Mosquito's Proboscis and Its Insertion Experiment With Vibration,” IEEJ Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng., 3(4), pp. 425–431. [CrossRef]
Yang, M. , and Zahn, J. D. , 2004, “Microneedle Insertion Force Reduction Using Vibratory Actuation,” Biomed. Microdevices, 6(3), pp. 177–182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Heverly, M. , Dupont, P. , and Triedman, J. , 2005, “Trajectory Optimization for Dynamic Needle Insertion,” 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Apr. 18–22, Vol. 1–4, pp. 1646–1651.
Mahvash, M. , and Dupont, P. E. , 2009, “Fast Needle Insertion to Minimize Tissue Deformation and Damage,” 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Kobe, Japan, May 12–17, Vol. 1–7, pp. 2761–2766.
Kobayashi, Y. , Sato, T. , and Fujie, M. G. , 2009, “Modeling of Friction Force Based on Relative Velocity Between Liver Tissue and Needle for Needle Insertion Simulation,” 2009 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Minneapolis, MN, Sep. 3–6, Vol. 1–20, pp. 5274–5278.
Abolhassani, N. , Patel, R. , and Moallem, M. , 2004, “Trajectory Generation for Robotic Needle Insertion in Soft Tissue,” 26th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol. 1–7, pp. 2730–2733.
Frick, T. B. , Marucci, D. D. , Cartmill, J. A. , Martin, C. J. , and Walsh, W. R. , 2001, “Resistance Forces Acting on Suture Needles,” J. Biomech., 34(10), pp. 1335–1340. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Koelmans, W. , Krishnamoorthy, G. , Heskamp, A. , Wissink, J. , Misra, S. , and Tas, N. , 2013, “Microneedle Characterization Using a Double-Layer Skin Simulant,” Mech. Eng. Res., 3(2), pp. 51–63. [CrossRef]
Crouch, J. R. , Schneider, C. M. , Wainer, J. , and Okamura, A. M. , 2005, “A Velocity-Dependent Model for Needle Insertion in Soft Tissue,” Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention—MICCAI 2005, Springer, New York, Vol. 3750, pp. 624–632.
Yan, K. G. , Podder, T. , Yu, Y. , Liu, T.-I. , Cheng, C. W. S. , and Ng, W. S. , 2009, “Flexible Needle–Tissue Interaction Modeling With Depth-Varying Mean Parameter: Preliminary Study,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 56(2), pp. 255–262. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dehghan, E. , Wen, X. , Zahiri-Azar, R. , Marchal, M. , and Salcudean, S. E. , 2007, “Modeling of Needle-Tissue Interaction Using Ultrasound-Based Motion Estimation,” Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention—MICCAI 2007, Springer, New York, Vol. 4791, pp. 709–716.
Roesthuis, R. J. , Van Veen, Y. R. , Jahya, A. , and Misra, S. , 2011, “Mechanics of Needle-Tissue Interaction,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), San Francisco, CA, Sep. 25–30, pp. 2557–2563.
Shergold, O. A. , and Fleck, N. A. , 2004, “Mechanisms of Deep Penetration of Soft Solids, With Application to the Injection and Wounding of Skin,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 460(2050), pp. 3037–3058. [CrossRef]
Misra, S. , Reed, K. B. , Schafer, B. W. , Ramesh, K. T. , and Okamura, A. M. , 2010, “Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered Through Soft Tissue,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 29(13), pp. 1640–1660. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mahvash, M. , and Dupont, P. E. , 2010, “Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion into a Biological Material,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 57(4), pp. 934–943. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Anderson, T. L. , 2005, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, CRC, Boca Raton, FL.
Atkins, A. G. , and Mai, Y.-W. , 1985, Elastic and Plastic Fracture: Metals, Polymers, Ceramics, Composites, Biological Materials, Ellis Horwood/Halsted, Chichester, UK/New York.
Atkins, A. G. , 2005, “Toughness and Cutting: A New Way of Simultaneously Determining Ductile Fracture Toughness and Strength,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 72(6), pp. 849–860. [CrossRef]
Liu, J. , Bai, Y. L. , and Xu, C. Y. , 2014, “Evaluation of Ductile Fracture Models in Finite Element Simulation of Metal Cutting Processes,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(1), p. 011010. [CrossRef]
Orlowski, K. A. , Ochrymiuk, T. , Atkins, A. , and Chuchala, D. , 2013, “Application of Fracture Mechanics for Energetic Effects Predictions While Wood Sawing,” Wood Sci. Technol., 47(5), pp. 949–963. [CrossRef]
Azar, T. , and Hayward, V. , 2008, “Estimation of the Fracture Toughness of Soft Tissue From Needle Insertion,” Biomedical Simulation, Springer, New York, pp. 166–175.
Mahvash, M. , and Hayward, V. , 2001, “Haptic Rendering of Cutting: A Fracture Mechanics Approach,” J. Haptics Res., 2(3), pp. 1–12.
Shergold, O. A. , and Fleck, N. A. , 2005, “Experimental Investigation Into the Deep Penetration of Soft Solids by Sharp and Blunt Punches, With Application to the Piercing of Skin,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 127(5), pp. 838–848. [CrossRef]
Asadian, A. , Patel, R. V. , and Kermani, M. R. , 2011, “A Distributed Model for Needle-Tissue Friction in Percutaneous Interventions,” 2011 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Shanghai, May 9–13, pp. 1896–1901.
Ankersen, J. , Birkbeck, A. E. , Thomson, R. D. , and Vanezis, P. , 1999, “Puncture Resistance and Tensile Strength of Skin Simulants,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part H-J. Eng. Med., 213(H6), pp. 493–501. [CrossRef]
Zhou, B. , Xu, F. , Chen, C. Q. , and Lu, T. J. , 2010, “Strain Rate Sensitivity of Skin Tissue Under Thermomechanical Loading,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A, 368(1912), pp. 679–690. [CrossRef]
Vincent, J. , 2012, Structural Biomaterials, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Nalla, R. K. , Stolken, J. S. , Kinney, J. H. , and Ritchie, R. O. , 2005, “Fracture in Human Cortical Bone: Local Fracture Criteria and Toughening Mechanisms,” J. Biomech., 38(7), pp. 1517–1525. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ogden, R. W. , Saccomandi, G. , and Sgura, I. , 2004, “Fitting Hyperelastic Models to Experimental Data,” Comput. Mech., 34(6), pp. 484–502. [CrossRef]
Gokgol, C. , Basdogan, C. , and Canadinc, D. , 2012, “Estimation of Fracture Toughness of Liver Tissue: Experiments and Validation,” Med. Eng. Phys., 34(7), pp. 882–891. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Pereira, B. P. , Lucas, P. W. , and Sweehin, T. , 1997, “Ranking the Fracture Toughness of Thin Mammalian Soft Tissues Using the Scissors Cutting Test,” J. Biomech., 30(1), pp. 91–94. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Purslow, P. P. , 1983, “Measurement of the Fracture-Toughness of Extensible Connective Tissues,” J. Mater. Sci., 18(12), pp. 3591–3598. [CrossRef]
Shergold, O. A. , Fleck, N. A. , and Radford, D. , 2006, “The Uniaxial Stress Versus Strain Response of Pig Skin and Silicone Rubber at Low and High Strain Rates,” Int. J. Impact Eng., 32(9), pp. 1384–1402. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Needle position inaccuracy due to (a) the needle bending and (b) target position movement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Force profile of needle passing through porcine skin

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Forces that compose total cutting force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup for needle insertion and (b) porcine skin mounting

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Graph of first and second needle insertion and (b) graph of fracture work performed to determine JIC

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Measured needle crack length in porcine skin

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for stretching porcine skin to determine shear modulus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Stress–strain curve of the porcine skin parallel, at a 45 deg angle, and perpendicular (including Ogden Fit) to the Langer lines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Fracture toughness of varying gauge needles from 1 to 80 mm/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Definition of the three angles that define hypodermic needle geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Two-dimensional fit of friction data where the points are the experimental data and the surface is the best fit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Tissue crack length results with linear fit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Measured shear modulus compared to strain rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Contact factor f compared to needle outer diameter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Completed force model (lines) plotted against experimental needle insertion force results (points)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Completed force model (line) plotted against experimental needle insertion force result (point) for 27 gauge needle




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In