Research Papers

Fracture Mechanics Model of Needle Cutting Tissue

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew C. Barnett

Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: acb279@psu.edu

Yuan-Shin Lee

Department of Industrial
and Systems Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: yslee@ncsu.edu

Jason Z. Moore

Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jzm14@psu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 3, 2014; final manuscript received April 2, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Yong Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(1), 011005 (Sep 09, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1458; doi: 10.1115/1.4030374 History: Received September 03, 2014

This work develops a needle insertion force model based on fracture mechanics, which incorporates the fracture toughness, shear modulus, and friction force of the needle and tissue. Ex vivo tissue experiments were performed to determine these mechanical tissue properties. A double insertion of the needle into the tissue was utilized to determine the fracture toughness. The shear modulus was found by applying an Ogden fit to the stress–strain curve of the tissue achieved through tension experiments. The frictional force was measured by inserting the needle through precut tissue. Results show that the force model predicts within 0.2 N of experimental needle insertion force and the fracture toughness is primarily affected by the needle diameter and needle edge geometry. On average, the tearing force was found to account for 61% of the total insertion force, the spreading force to account for 18%, and the friction force to account for the remaining 21%.

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Fig. 1

Needle position inaccuracy due to (a) the needle bending and (b) target position movement

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Fig. 2

Force profile of needle passing through porcine skin

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Fig. 3

Forces that compose total cutting force

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Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup for needle insertion and (b) porcine skin mounting

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Fig. 5

(a) Graph of first and second needle insertion and (b) graph of fracture work performed to determine JIC

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Fig. 6

Measured needle crack length in porcine skin

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Fig. 7

Experimental setup for stretching porcine skin to determine shear modulus

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Fig. 8

Stress–strain curve of the porcine skin parallel, at a 45 deg angle, and perpendicular (including Ogden Fit) to the Langer lines

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Fig. 9

Fracture toughness of varying gauge needles from 1 to 80 mm/s

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Fig. 10

Definition of the three angles that define hypodermic needle geometry

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Fig. 11

Two-dimensional fit of friction data where the points are the experimental data and the surface is the best fit

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Fig. 12

Tissue crack length results with linear fit

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Fig. 13

Measured shear modulus compared to strain rate

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Fig. 14

Contact factor f compared to needle outer diameter

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Fig. 15

Completed force model (lines) plotted against experimental needle insertion force results (points)

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Fig. 16

Completed force model (line) plotted against experimental needle insertion force result (point) for 27 gauge needle



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