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Research Papers

Multiscale Finite Element Modeling of Alumina Ceramics Undergoing Laser-Assisted Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiangyang Dong

Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: dong66@purdue.edu

Yung C. Shin

Fellow ASME
Center for Laser-Based Manufacturing,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: shin@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 2, 2014; final manuscript received February 13, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(1), 011004 (Sep 09, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1456; doi: 10.1115/1.4029858 History: Received September 02, 2014

Alumina ceramics, due to their excellent properties of high hardness, corrosion resistance, and low thermal expansion coefficient, are important industrial materials with a wide range of applications, but these materials also present difficulty in machining with low material removal rates and high tool wear. This study is concerned with laser-assisted machining (LAM) of high weight percentage of alumina ceramics to improve the machinability by a single point cutting tool while reducing the cutting forces. A multiscale model is developed for simulating the machining of alumina ceramics. In the polycrystalline form, the properties of alumina ceramics are strongly related to the glass interface existing in their microstructure, particularly at high temperatures. The interface is characterized by a cohesive zone model (CZM) with the traction–separation law while the alumina grains are modeled as continuum elements with isotropic properties separated by the interface. Bulk deformation and brittle failure are considered for the alumina grains. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to obtain the atomistic structures and parameterize traction–separation laws for the interfaces of different compositions of alumina ceramics at high temperatures. The generated parameterized traction–separation laws are then incorporated into a finite element model in Abaqus to simulate the intergranular cracks. For validation purposes, simulated results of the multiscale approach are compared with the experimental measurements of the cutting forces. The model is successful in predicting cutting forces with respect to the different weight percentage and composition of alumina ceramics at high temperatures in LAM processes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Multiscale modeling of alumina (a) Microstructure of 96 wt.% alumina [12], (b) hexagonal cell, and (c) schematics of modeling

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Fig. 2

Schematics of the model to calculate local tractions and separations. (a) Schematic demonstration of simulation model. (b) Illustration of atomic structures of different IGF compositions, modified from Ref. [18], Al-red, O-gray, Si-blue, and Ca-yellow.

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Fig. 3

Initial finite element meshes

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Fig. 4

Illustration of simulation structure

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Fig. 5

Density profile analysis of individual species as a function of distance perpendicular to the IGF-crystal interface: (a) Simulation results and (b) literature results [18]

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Fig. 6

Traction–separation response of alumina of different compositions at 1100 °C

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Fig. 7

Traction–separation response of 96 wt.% alumina at different temperatures

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Fig. 8

Schematics of tensile test model

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Fig. 9

Traction–separation response in MD simulation and parameterization

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Fig. 10

Stress–strain behavior in simulation of tensile test

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Fig. 11

The simulated chip formation in LAM of Alumina. (a) Initiation of microcracks to form the first chip. (b) Propagation and coalescence of microcracks into a macrocrack in the shear zone. (c) Formation of the segmental chip.

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Fig. 12

Comparison of experimental and simulated cutting forces for 96 wt.% alumina

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Fig. 13

Comparison of experimental and simulated cutting forces for 99.5 wt.% alumina

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