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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Laser Forming of Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam

[+] Author and Article Information
Min Zhang

Laser Processing Research Center,
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,
Soochow University,
Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021, China
e-mail: mzhang@aliyun.come

Chang Jun Chen

Laser Processing Research Center,
School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,
Soochow University,
Suzhou, Jiangsu 215021, China
e-mail: chjchen2001@aliyun.com

Grant Brandal

Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: gbb2114@columbia.edu

Dakai Bian

Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: db2875@columbia.edu

Y. Lawrence Yao

Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10027
e-mail: yly1@columbia.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 17, 2014; final manuscript received April 1, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(2), 021006 (Sep 09, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1678; doi: 10.1115/1.4030511 History: Received December 17, 2014

Aluminum foams are generally very attractive because of their ability of combining different properties such as strength, light weight, thermal, and acoustic insulation. These materials, however, are typically brittle under mechanical forming, and this severely limits their use. Recent studies have shown that laser forming is an effective way for foam panel forming. In this paper, the laser formability of Al–Si closed-cell foam through experiments and numerical simulations was investigated. The bending angle as a function of the number of passes at different laser power and scan velocity values was investigated for large- and small-pore foams. In the finite element analysis, both effective-property and cellular models were considered for the closed-cell foam. Multiscan laser forming was also carried out and simulated to study the accumulative effect on the final bending angle and stress states. The maximum von Mises stress in the scanning section was on the order of 0.8 MPa, which was lower than the yield strength of the closed-cell foam material. This paper further discussed the reasonableness and applicability of the two models.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Topics: Aluminum , Lasers , Stress
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References

Figures

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Fig. 2

Meshed geometry of (a) effective-property model and (b) cellular model (cell size = 7 mm) (100 mm × 35 mm × 11 mm)

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Fig. 1

(a) Large pore (pore size: 5–10 mm and average pore size: 7 mm) and (b) small pore (pore size: 3–5 mm) closed-cell foam aluminum (100 mm × 35 mm × 11 mm)

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Fig. 9

Time history of stress in y-direction along the laser scanning path of large-pore foam aluminum (effective-property model)

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Fig. 14

Bending results of (a) effective-property model and (b) cellular model (cell size = 7 mm) after laser scanning of large-pore foam aluminum (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm, magnification 20 × for viewing clarity)

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Fig. 15

Temperature contour at (a) top and (b) bottom surface of aluminum foam as predicated by the cellular model (cell size 7 mm) showing cell strut middle, cell strut edge, and cell wall. The laser scan is horizontally from right to left (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm).

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Fig. 10

Plastic strain/stress history in y-direction at (a) top surface and (b) bottom surface along the laser scanning path of ten-pass scanning of large-pore foam aluminum (effective-property model) (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm)

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Fig. 11

Uniaxial tensile stress versus strain curves for Al–Si closed-cell aluminum foams with different relative densities [21]

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Fig. 12

Typical Y-direction plastic residual stress distribution along the scanning path after ten scans of large-pore foam aluminum (effective-property model) (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm)

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Fig. 13

Temperature history of typical point in (a) effective-property model and (b) cellular model (cell size = 7 mm) during laser scanning large pore foam aluminums with thickness of 11 mm (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm)

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Fig. 3

Laser bent samples of large-pore closed-cell foam aluminum after 40 scans (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm)

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Fig. 4

Bending angle versus number of laser scans under different processing parameters: (a) large-pore and (b) small-pore foam aluminum plates

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Fig. 5

Laser bent samples with crack formed at bottom surface after 40 scans (laser powder = 360 W, scanning speed = 1.8 mm/s, and beam diameter = 8 mm)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of numerical (effective-property model) and experimental results of the large-pore foam laser bending angle (power: 300 W and 360 W, scanning speed: 1.8 and 2.4 mm/s, and beam diameter: 8 mm)

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Fig. 7

Time history of temperature at the top/middle/bottom surface along the laser scanning path of large-pore foam aluminium (effective-property model)

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Fig. 8

Time history of plastic strain in y-direction (perpendicular to the scan direction on the top surface) along the laser scanning path of large-pore foam aluminum (effective-property model)

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Fig. 16

Time history of y-axis plastic strain and stress in cell wall, cell strut edge, and cell strut middle at (a) the top surface and (b) bottom surface of the laser scanning path predicted by the cellular model (laser powder 5360 W, scanning speed 51.8 mm/s, and beam diameter 58 mm)

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