0
Research Papers

Fatigue Life Improvement of Holed Plates Made of an Innovative Medium C Micro-Alloyed Steel by Local Plastic Deformation

[+] Author and Article Information
Dario Croccolo, Giorgio Olmi, Lorella Ceschini, Alessandro Morri

DIN, Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Bologna,
Bologna 40136, Italy

Massimiliano De Agostinis

DIN, Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Bologna,
Bologna 40136, Italy
e-mail: m.deagostinis@unibo.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 1, 2014; final manuscript received March 31, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(2), 021005 (Sep 09, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1646; doi: 10.1115/1.4030378 History: Received December 01, 2014

This paper deals with the influence of local plastic deformation on the fatigue strength of holed plates manufactured with an innovative medium-carbon micro-alloyed steel with high silicon content (hi-Si MCM). Local deformation around the hole is achieved by means of an interference fitted pin. The effect was investigated both experimentally and numerically. Microstructural characterization, hardness, and tensile tests were carried out first. Tension–tension fatigue tests were performed under two different conditions: open-hole (OH) specimens and specimens with a press fitted pin with 0.6% nominal specific interference. A 2D elastic–plastic finite element analyses (FEAs) investigation was done as well, in order to analyze the stress field in the vicinity of the hole. The stress history and distribution in the neighborhood of the hole indicate a significant reduction of the stress amplitude produced by the external loading (remote stress) when a residual stress field is generated by the pin insertion. In fact, experimental stress-life (SN) curves pointed out increased fatigue strength of the interference fit specimens, compared with the OH ones. Finally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of the fractured fatigue specimens were carried out, in order to investigate the mechanisms of failure and to relate them to the peculiar microstructural features that characterize this innovative steel.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , and Olmi, G. , 2013, “Fatigue Life Characterisation of Interference Fitted Joints,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2013-63515.
Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , and Vincenzi, N. , 2012, “Normalization of the Stress Concentrations at the Rounded Edges of a Shaft-Hub Interference Fit: Extension to the Case of a Hollow Shaft,” J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des., 47(3), pp. 131–139. [CrossRef]
Olmi, G. , 2012, “An Efficient Method for the Determination of the Probability of Failure on the Basis of LCF Data: Application to Turbogenerator Design,” SDHM Struct. Durability Health Monit., 8(1), pp. 61–89.
Olmi, G. , and Freddi, A. , 2014, “Reliability Assessment of a Turbogenerator Coil Retaining Ring Based on Low Cycle Fatigue Data,” Arch. Mech. Eng., 61(1), pp. 5–34. [CrossRef]
Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , and Vincenzi, N. , 2012, “Influence of Tightening Procedures and Lubrication Conditions on Titanium Screw Joints for Lightweight Applications,” Tribol. Int. 55, pp. 68–76. [CrossRef]
Herbert, C. , Axinte, D. A. , Hardy, M. , and Withers, P. , 2014, “Influence of Surface Anomalies Following Hole Making Operations on the Fatigue Performance for a Nickel Based Superalloy,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(5), p. 051016. [CrossRef]
Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , and Vincenzi, N. , 2011, “Experimental Analysis of Static and Fatigue Strength Properties in Press-Fitted and Adhesively Bonded Steel Aluminium Components,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., 25(18), pp. 2521–2538. [CrossRef]
Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , and Vincenzi, N. , 2012, “Design and Optimization of Shaft-Hub Hybrid Joints for Lightweight Structures: Analytical Definition of Normalizing Parameters,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 56(1), pp. 77–85. [CrossRef]
Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , Mauri, P. , and Olmi, G. , 2014, “Influence of the Engagement Ratio on the Joint Strength of Press Fitted and Adhesively Bonded Specimens,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 53, pp. 80–88. [CrossRef]
Akyildiz, H. K. , and Livatyali, H. , 2013, “Design of Threaded Fatigue Test Specimen for Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Ayatollahi, M. , and Nik, M. A. , 2009, “Edge Distance Effects on Residual Stress Distribution Around a Cold Expanded Hole in Al 2024 Alloy,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 45(4), pp. 1134–1141. [CrossRef]
Chakherlou, T. , Alvandi-Tabrizi, Y. , and Kiani, A. , 2011, “On the Fatigue Behavior of Cold Expanded Fastener Holes Subjected to Bolt Tightening,” Int. J. Fatigue, 33(6), pp. 800–810. [CrossRef]
Olmi, G. , Comandini, M. , and Freddi, A. , 2010, “Fatigue on Shot-Peened Gears: Experimentation, Simulation and Sensitivity Analyses,” Strain, 46(4), pp. 382–395. [CrossRef]
Comandini, M. , Olmi, G. , and Freddi, A. , 2007, “Fatigue Performance of Shot-Peened Gears Investigated by Experimental and Numerical Methods,” Trans. Famena, 31(2), pp. 1–10.
Olmi, G. , and Freddi, A. , 2013, “A New Method for Modelling the Support Effect Under Rotating Bending Fatigue: Application to Ti-6Al-4V Alloy, With and Without Shot-Peening,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 36(10), pp. 981–993. [CrossRef]
Benedetti, M. , Fontanari, V. , Höhn, B.-R. , Oster, P. , and Tobie, T. , 2002, “Influence of Shot Peening on Bending Tooth Fatigue Limit of Case Hardened Gears,” Int. J. Fatigue, 24(11), pp. 1127–1136. [CrossRef]
Iada, A. , Ieguchi, H. , Matsushima, Y. , Iue, K. , and Shimuzu, M. , 1995, “The Effects of Retained Austenite in Carburized Layer on the Fatigue Properties,” Curr. Adv. Mater. Processes, 8(3), pp. 536–539.
De los Rios, E. R. , Mercier, P. , and El-Sehily, B. M. , 1996, “Short Crack Growth Behaviour Under Variable Amplitude Loading of Shot Peened Surfaces,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 19(2–3), pp. 175–184. [CrossRef]
Natkaniec-Kocada, D. , Kocada, S. , and Miller, K. J. , 1996, “Influence of Shot-Peening on Short Crack Behaviour in a Medium Carbon Steel,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 19(7), pp. 911–917. [CrossRef]
Solis, J. , Oseguera, J. , and Betancourt, I. , 2009, “Short Crack Propagation Model Applied to Shot Peened Aluminium Alloys,” Adv. Mater. Res., 65, pp. 53–61. [CrossRef]
Vallellano, C. , Navarro, A. , and De los Rios, E. R. , 1998, “Application of Microstructural Fracture Mechanics to Shotpeened Components,” ECF12 International Conference, Sheffield, UK, pp. 145–150.
Lanciotti, A. , and Polese, C. , 2005, “The Effect of Interference-Fit Fasteners on the Fatigue Life of Central Hole Specimens,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 28(7), pp. 587–597. [CrossRef]
Iyer, K. , Hu, S. J. , Brittman, F. L. , Wang, P. C. , Hayden, D. B. , and Marin, S. P. , 2005, “Fatigue of Single-And Double-Rivet Self-Piercing Riveted Lap Joints,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 28(11), pp. 997–1007. [CrossRef]
Giglio, M. , and Lodi, M. , 2009, “Optimization of a Cold-Working Process for Increasing Fatigue Life,” Int. J. Fatigue, 31(11–12), pp. 1978–1995. [CrossRef]
Chakherlou, T. , Mirzajanzadeh, M. , and Vogwell, J. , 2009, “Experimental and Numerical Investigations Into the Effect of an Interference Fit on the Fatigue Life of Double Shear Lap Joints,” Eng. Failure Anal., 16(7), pp. 2066–2080. [CrossRef]
Chakherlou, T. , Mirzajanzadeh, M. , Abazadeh, B. , and Saeedi, K. , 2010, “An Investigation About Interference Fit Effect on Improving Fatigue Life of a Holed Single Plate in Joints,” Eur. J. Mech. A, 29(4), pp. 675–682. [CrossRef]
Chakherlou, T. N. , Mirzajanzadeh, M. , and Saeedi, K. H. , 2010, “Fatigue Crack Growth and Life Prediction of a Single Interference Fitted Holed Plate,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 33(10), pp. 633–644. [CrossRef]
Lacarac, V. , Smith, D. J. , Pavier, M. J. , and Priest, M. , 2000, “Fatigue Crack Growth From Plain and Cold Expanded Holes in Aluminium Alloys,” Int. J. Fatigue, 22(3), pp. 189–203. [CrossRef]
Croccolo, D. , De Agostinis, M. , Ceschini, L. , Morri, A. , and Marconi, A. , 2013, “Interference Fit Effect on Improving Fatigue Life of a Holed Single Plate,” Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct., 36(7), pp. 689–698. [CrossRef]
Jahazi, M. , and Eghbali, B. , 2001, “The Influence of Hot Forging Condition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Two Microalloyed Steels,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 113(1–3), pp. 594–598. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X. , Cai, Q. , Zhou, G. , Chen, Q. , and Xiong, Y. , 2011, “Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of V–Ti–N Microalloyed Steel Used for Fracture Splitting Connecting Rod,” J. Mater. Sci., 46(6), pp. 1789–1795. [CrossRef]
ASTM E3-11, Standard Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM E10-12, Standard Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM E8/E8M-11, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Pilkey, W. D. , 1997, Peterson's Stress Concentration Factors, Wiley, New York.
Olmi, G. , 2011, “A New Loading-Constraining Device for Mechanical Testing With Misalignment Auto-Compensation,” Exp. Tech., 35(6), pp. 61–70. [CrossRef]
Hocksell, E. , 2011, “IMAMIC Microalloy Steel Properties As-Rolled,” Ovako Bar Oy Ab, Imatra, FI, Technical Report No. 2011-4-28.
Skubisz, P. , Adrian, H. , and Sinczak, J. , 2011, “Controlled Cooling of Drop Forged Microalloyed-Steel Automotive Crankshaft,” Arch. Metall. Mater., 56(1), pp. 93–107.
ISO 12107, 2003, Metallic Materials—Fatigue Testing—Statistical Planning and Analysis of Data, Geneva, Switzerland.
Stephens, R. I. , Fatemi, A. , Stephens, R. R. , and Fuchs, H. O. , 2001, Metal Fatigue in Engineering II, Wiley, New York.
Lazzarin, P. , Tovo, R. , and Meneghetti, G. , 1997, “Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation Phases Near Notches in Metals With Low Notch Sensitivity,” Int. J. Fatigue, 19(8–9), pp. 647–657. [CrossRef]
Taylor, D. , 2007, The Theory of Critical Distances—A New Perspective in Fracture Mechanics, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Sankaran, S. , Subramanya Sarma, V. , Padmanabhan, K. A. , Jaeger, G. , and Koethe, A. , 2003, “High Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of a Multiphase Microalloyed Medium Carbon Steel: A Comparison Between Ferrite–Pearlite and Tempered Martensite Microstructures,” Mater. Sci. Eng., 362(1–2), pp. 249–256. [CrossRef]
Davidson, D. L. , and Lankford, J. , 1992, “Fatigue Crack Growth in Metals and Alloys: Mechanisms and Micromechanics,” Int. Mater. Rev., 37(1), pp. 45–76. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Examples of chain joints or rivet connections

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Shape and dimensions (mm) of the fatigue specimens. Kt = 3.31 [35].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fatigue specimen with interference fitted pin: (a) coupling phase and (b) clamping by wedge grips

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Optical micrographs of the hi-Si MCM steel at low (a) and high (b) magnification; CCC of the steel (c) [37]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

S–N curves for OH and I06 specimens

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Low magnification fatigue fracture surfaces for OH (a) and I06 (b) specimens. Fatigue crack nucleation sites on both (c) or one side (d) of the hole.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Fracture surfaces of the OH specimen tested with a RSOH = 400 MPa failed after N = 40,094 cycles. (a) and (b) multiple crack nucleation sites on both sides of the hole, (c) crack nucleation site at machining defect, and (d) fatigue nucleation site.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Fracture surfaces of the I06 specimen tested with a RSOH = 300 MPa failed after N = 370,015 cycles. (a) Multiple crack nucleation sites; (b) overload failure; (c) crack nucleation site; (d) ductile dimples and secondary cracks parallel to the loading direction.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

EDS analysis of Mn–Si particles at the bottom of the dimples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Reference system for stresses

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Example of FEA model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Δσy stress amplitude comparison for OH and I06 specimens at 150,000 cycles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Δσy_av average stress amplitude comparison for OH (a) and I06 (b) specimens at 150,000 cycles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Average of the stress amplitude, histograms for OH and I06 over a range of life cycles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

S–N curve for OH and I06 specimens based on the average of the stress amplitude

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Fatigue behavior of the hi-Si MCM micro-alloyed steel compared with that of the traditional QT steel 35KB2 S–N curve for OH and I06 specimens [29]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Maximum RS for given interference level as a function of maximum RS for OH

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In