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Research Papers

An Assessment of the Wear Characteristics of Microcutting Arrays Produced From Polycrystalline Diamond and Cubic Boron Nitride Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
M. Pacella

Faculty of Engineering, Machining
and Condition Monitoring Research Group,
Manufacturing and Process Technologies
Research Division,
The University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: eaxmp1@nottingham.ac.uk

D. A. Axinte

Professor
Faculty of Engineering, Machining
and Condition Monitoring Research Group,
Manufacturing and Process Technologies
Research Division,
The University of Nottingham,
University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: Dragos.Axinte@nottingham.ac.uk

P. W. Butler-Smith

Faculty of Engineering, Machining
and Condition Monitoring Research Group,
Manufacturing and Process Technologies
Research Division,
The University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: Paul.Butler-Smith@nottingham.ac.uk

P. Shipway

Professor
Faculty of Engineering, Materials, Mechanics and
Structures Research Division,
The University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: Philip.Shipway@nottingham.ac.uk

M. Daine

Faculty of Engineering, Machining and Condition
Monitoring Research Group,
Manufacturing and Process Technologies
Research Division,
The University of Nottingham,
University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
e-mail: Mark.Daine@nottingham.ac.uk

C. Wort

Manager, New Technologies,
Element Six Ltd.,
Berkshire SL5 8BP, UK
e-mail: chris.wort@e6.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received November 7, 2014; final manuscript received May 18, 2015; published online September 9, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Y. B. Guo.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(2), 021001 (Sep 09, 2015) (16 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1583; doi: 10.1115/1.4030761 History: Received November 07, 2014

The current methods for manufacturing super-abrasive elements result in a stochastic geometry of abrasives with random three-dimensional abrasive locations. This paper focuses on the evaluation of wear progression/failure characteristics of micro-abrasive arrays made of ultrahard composites (polycrystalline diamond—PCD; polycrystalline cubic boron nitride—PCBN) in cutting/wear tests against silicon dioxide workpiece. Pulsed laser ablation (Nd:YAG laser) has been used to manufacture repeatable patterns of micro-abrasive edges onto microstructurally different PCD/PCBN composites. Opposing to these highly engineered micro-abrasive arrays, conventional electroplated abrasive pads containing diamond and CBN abrasives, respectively, have been chosen as benchmarks and tested under the same conditions. Contact profiling, optical microscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy have been employed for the characterization of the abrasive arrays and electroplated tools before/during/after the wear/cutting tests. For the PCD abrasive micro-arrays, the type of grain and binder percentage proved to affect the wear performances due to the different extents of compressive stresses occurring at the grain boundaries. In this respect, the micro-arrays made of PCD with mixed diamond grain sizes have shown slower wear progression when compared to the electroplated diamond pads confirming the combination of the high wear resistance typical of the fine grain and the good shock resistance typical of the coarse grain structures. The micro-arrays made of fine grained diamond abrasives have produced lower contact pressures with the workpiece shaft, confirming a possible application in polishing or grinding. As for the PCBN abrasive micro-arrays, the increase of metallic binder and the presence of metalloids in the medium content-CBN specimens have shown to produce higher contact pressure with the workpiece when compared to the electroplated specimen, causing fracturing as the main wear mechanism; while the PCBN micro-array with purely a metallic binder phase has shown slower wear and lower contact pressure in comparison to the electroplated CBN specimen. Among all of the tested arrays, the mixed grained PCD and the purely metallic binder phase PCBN micro-arrays have shown slower wear when benchmarked to the electroplated pads, giving a possible application of their use in the cutting tool industry.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Backscattered ESEM images of polished surfaces of PCD: (a) CTM302 mixed grained and (b) CMX850 fine grained

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Fig. 2

Backscattered ESEM images of polished surfaces of PCBN: (a) DBS900 high-CBN content and (b) DBW85 medium-CBN content

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Fig. 3

ESEM images of electroplated abrasive pads: (a) diamond and (b) CBN abrasives

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Fig. 4

Schematic of the test setup: (a) full shaft diameter in contact with the abrasive array and detail of the cross section of the contact array/shaft and (b) 3D enlarged view of the array and detail of a single micro-abrasive edge for the laser tool path

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the monitoring equipment diagram for the acquisition of the forces

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Fig. 6

SEM micrograph of a PCD CMX850 micro-array manufactured with PLA in top view; inset—tilted view

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Fig. 7

SEM images of the CMX850 fine grained micro-array showing the abrasive element geometry: (a) side view and (b) tilted view

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Fig. 8

SEM of a representative electroplated CBN abrasive material: (a) side view and (b) top view

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Fig. 9

SEM imaging of a single CNB grit in an electroplated PCBN abrasive pad: (a) tilted and (b) top views

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Fig. 10

ESEM of wear features for abrasive micro-arrays after 5000 passes (5 μm depth of cut): (a) CMX850 fine grained diamond and (b) CTM302 mixed grained diamond

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Fig. 11

ESEM micrographs demonstrating the reduction in height (i.e., flattening) of electroplated diamond grits: (a) in “fresh” condition and (b) after 5000 passes (for 5 μm depth of cut)

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Fig. 12

ESEM images proving the fracture of CMX850 fine grained PCD array after 3000 passes (5 μm depth of cut): (a) side view and (b) front view of a micro-abrasive edge

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Fig. 13

ESEM images after 3000 passes (5 μm depth of cut) in CTM302 mixed grained PCD array: (a) tilted view of the worn micro-abrasive edge and (b) front view of the micro-abrasive edge

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Fig. 14

ESEM images of wear behavior of the CTM302 micro-abrasive edge: (a) after 4000 passes and (b) after 5000 passes (5 μm depth of cut)

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Fig. 15

Graph showing a typical signal acquired in a single pass with the corresponding time of contact of the shaft upon: (a) the CMX850 fine grained array and (b) the D501 electroplated diamond abrasive

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Fig. 16

ESEM example of the variation in edges/grit density per same surface area: (a) 12 micro-edges in the case of the array and (b) seven grits in the case of the electroplated specimen

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Fig. 17

CAD schematic of the manufactured array with dimensions, number of micro-edges in instantaneous contact with the shaft, tested area, untested area, and worn and unworn areas

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Fig. 18

ESEM images of different abrasive edges positioning in the same CMX850 array after 5000 passes: (a) most worn surface corresponding to highest contact pressure with the shaft (t < 1.25 s) and (b) unworn surface corresponding to time interval of not acquired contact loads (t > 1.25 s)

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Fig. 19

Example of the abrasive/cutting elements in a micro-array and their area of contact with the shaft during test: (a) topographical measurement of a single abrasive element at a first stage of the test (250 passes); (b) measured area of contact of the single abrasive element via thresholding process after 250 passes; (c) topographical measurement of a single abrasive element after the test (5000 passes); and (d) measured area of contact of a single abrasive element via thresholding process after the test (5000 passes)

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Fig. 20

Example of a single grit of an diamond electroplated pad and its area of contact with the shaft during test: (a) topographical measurement of a single grit in the first stage of the test (250 passes); (b) measured area of contact of the single grit with the shaft via thresholding process (after 250 passes); (c) topographical measurement of a single grit after the test (5000 passes); and (d) measured area of contact of a single grit via thresholding process after the test (5000 passes)

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Fig. 21

Comparative graph showing the calculated contact pressures, on the vertical Y axis in logarithmic scale

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Fig. 22

ESEM tilted view comparative imaging of the DBS900 in the wear test (1 μm depth of cut): (a) before test, (b) after 500 passes, and (c) after 1000 passes

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Fig. 23

ESEM tilted view of the DBW85 during the wear test (1 μm depth of cut): (a) before the test, (b) after 500 passes, and (c) after 1000 passes

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Fig. 24

ESEM micrographs showing some detail of the same selected microgrit unworn/worn on the electroplated CBN grain: (a) before the test, unworn area and (b) after 1000 passes (1 μm depth of cut) worn area

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Fig. 25

Comparative graph showing the calculated contact pressures for the PCBN/electroplated CBN specimens

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