Research Papers

Selective Laser Melting of Iron Powder: Observation of Melting Mechanism and Densification Behavior Via Point-Track-Surface-Part Research

[+] Author and Article Information
Baicheng Zhang

SIMTech—Singapore Institute
of Manufacturing Technology,
71 Nanyang Drive,
Singapore 638075, Singapore;
Université de Technologie
de Belfort-Montbéliard,
Site de Sévenans,
Belfort Cedex 90010, France
e-mail: zhangbc@simtech.a-star.edu.sg

Christian Coddet

Université de Technologie
de Belfort-Montbéliard,
Site de Sévenans,
Belfort Cedex 90010, France

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 17, 2014; final manuscript received August 17, 2015; published online November 16, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(5), 051001 (Nov 16, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1680; doi: 10.1115/1.4031366 History: Received December 17, 2014; Revised August 17, 2015

This paper presents the following procedure of additive manufacturing technology: point → track → surface → part, each part including different research aspects of selective laser melting (SLM) process. First, the transmissivity of laser through powder layer is measured with various powder layer thicknesses and particle sizes. The evolution of track cross section dimension is studied with different laser parameters and powders in track research. A surface quality including morphology and roughness research is shown in surface section. In this part, a single melted layer with smooth surface Ra 12.5 μm can be obtained with high laser density. After the part was established, the density and microstructure of SLM Fe part are present. The microstructural features of SLM Fe experienced an interesting change as follows: secondary sorbite → martensite → pearlite with decrease in laser energy density. At last, a simple SLM-process model was described.

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Fig. 4

Different zones after laser irradiation on one point

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Fig. 3

Transmissivity of different laser powers and powder layers

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Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of transmissivity measure

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Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of the Fe powder and (b) particle size distribution of the two powder batches

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Fig. 5

Evolution of the tracks height versus laser beam parameters

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Fig. 6

The evolution of surface roughness with scanning velocity

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Fig. 7

The evolution of the width of the melted tracks with different laser parameters

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Fig. 8

The evolution of the depth of melted part with different laser parameters

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the height of the tracks for several laser parameters for powder B

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Fig. 10

SEM images for (a) microstructure in a sample under v = 0.05 m/s and P = 110 W and (b) magnified part at the interface with substrate

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Fig. 11

Surface images of the first layer made with powder A obtained for different laser parameters: (a) 0.05 m/s, (b) 0.2 m/s, (c) 0.8 m/s with a power of 110 W, (d) 0.05 m/s, (e) 0.2 m/s, and (f)0.8 m/s with a power of 80 W

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Fig. 12

Evolution of SLM part density and microstructure of cross section

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Fig. 13

Schematic of powder melted during SLM

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Fig. 14

SEM photo of SLM part microstructure after etching




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