0
Research Papers

Effect of Tool Wear on Hole Quality in Drilling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic–Titanium Alloy Stacks Using Tungsten Carbide and Polycrystalline Diamond Tools

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Kim

School of Engineering and Computer Science,
Washington State University,
Vancouver, WA 98686

A. Beal

Epic,
Verona, WI 53593

P. Kwon

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 22, 2014; final manuscript received July 3, 2015; published online October 1, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Guillaume Fromentin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(3), 031006 (Oct 01, 2015) Paper No: MANU-14-1701; doi: 10.1115/1.4031052 History: Received December 22, 2014; Revised July 03, 2015

This paper reviews the nature of hole defects and postulates the cause of hole defects resulting from the drilling process of carbon fiber reinforced plastic–titanium alloy stacked panels (CFRP–Ti stacks) using tungsten carbide (WC) and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) twist drills. The parameters that describe the hole quality of the CFRP–Ti stacks include CFRP entry hole delamination, hole diameter and roundness, inner hole surface roughness, CFRP hole profile, CFRP–Ti interplate damage, and Ti exit burr. They are caused by heat generation during drilling as well as hot Ti chips and adhesion, Ti burr formation, tool instability, and tool geometry change due to tool wear. For the WC drills, large flank wear and margin wear occurred at the high spindle speed condition, resulting in a reduction of the hole size and an increase of the hole roundness and CFRP–Ti interface damage. At the low spindle speed condition, tool geometry was changed due to the large edge rounding. This resulted in large fiber pull-out at the CFRP hole surface. Ti entry burrs caused damage associated with fiber removal and matrix discoloring at the bottom of the CFRP panel and this interplate damage was observed to increase with tool wear. When compared with the WC tool at the same speed condition, the PCD drill maintained relatively small hole defects under all parameters.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Margolis, D. , 2006, “ Stacking the Odds,” Cutting Tool Engineering Magazine, Vol. 58, p. 8.
Park, K.-H. , Beal, A. , Kim, D. , Kwon, P. , and Lantrip, J. , 2013, “ A Comparative Study of Carbide Tools in Drilling of CFRP and CFRP-Ti Stacks,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(1), p. 014501.
Ramulu, M. , Branson, T. , and Kim, D. , 2001, “ A Study on the Drilling of Composite and Titanium Stack,” Compos. Struct., 54, pp. 67–77.
Brinksmeier, E. , and Janssen, R. , 2002, “ Drilling of Multi-Layer Composite Materials Consisting of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP), Titanium and Aluminum Alloys,” Ann. CIRP, 51(1), pp. 87–90.
Kim, D. , and Ramulu, M. , 2004, “ Drilling Process Optimization for Graphite/Bismaleimide-Titanium Alloy Stacks,” Compos. Struct., 63, pp. 101–114.
Kim, D. , and Ramulu, M. , 2007, “ Study on the Drilling of Titanium/Graphite Hybrid Composites,” ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 129(3), pp. 390–396.
Zitoune, R. , Krihnaraj, V. , and Collombet, F. , 2010, “ Studying of Drilling Composite Material and Aluminum Stack,” Compos. Struct., 92, pp. 1246–1255.
Shyha, I. , Soo, S. L. , Aspinwall, D. K. , Bradley, S. , Dawson, S. , and Pretorius, C. J. , 2010, “ Drilling of Titanium/CFRP/Aluminium Stacks,” Key Eng. Mater., 447-448, pp. 624–633.
Park, K. , Beal, A. , Kim, D. , Kwon, P. , and Lantrip, J. , 2011, “ Tool Wear in Drilling of Composite/Titanium Stacks Using Carbide and Polycrystalline Diamond Tools,” Wear, 271(11–12), pp. 2826–2835.
Persson, E. , Erriksson, I. , and Hammersberg, P. , 1997, “ Effects of Hole Machining Defects on Strength and Fatigue Life of Composite Laminates,” Composites Part A, 28(2), pp. 141–151.
Hamdoun, Z. , Gullaumat, L. , and Latailade, J. L. , 2004, “ Influence of the Drilling on the Fatigue Behaviour of Carbon Epoxy Laminates,” ECCM 11, Rhodes, Greece.
Liu, J. , Shao, X. J. , Liu, Y. J. , Liu, Y. S. , and Yue, Z. F. , 2007, “ The Effect of Holes Quality on Fatigue Life of Open Hole,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 467, pp. 8–14.
Hocheng, H. , and Dharan, C. K. H. , 1990, “ Delamination During Drilling in Composite Laminates,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 112(3), pp. 236–239.
Jain, S. , and Yang, D. C. H. , 1993, “ Effects of Feedrate and Chisel Edge on Delamination in Composites Drilling,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 115(4), pp. 398–405.
Sadat, A. B. , Chan, W. S. , and Wang, B. P. , 1992, “ Delamination of Graphite Epoxy Laminate During Drilling Operation,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 114(2), pp. 139–141.
Upadhyay, P. C. , and Lyons, J. S. , 1999, “ On the Evaluation of Critical Thrust for Delamination-Free Drilling of Composite Laminates,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 18(14), pp. 1287–1303.
Lachuad, F. , Piquet, R. , Collombet, F. , and Surcin, L. , 2001, “ Drilling of Composite Structures,” Compos. Struct., 52, pp. 511–516.
Zitoune, R. , and Collombet, F. , 2007, “ Numerical Prediction of the Thrust Force Responsible of Delamination During the Drilling of the Long-Fibre Composite Structures,” Composites Part A, 38(3), pp. 858–866.
Davim, J. P. , Rubio, J. C. , and Abrao, A. M. , 2007, “ A Novel Approach Based on Digital Image Analysis to Evaluate the Delamination Factor After Drilling Composite Laminates,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 67(9), pp. 1939–1945.
Gururaja, S. , and Ramulu, M. , 2009, “ Modified Exit-Ply Delamination Model for Drilling FRPs,” J. Compos. Mater., 43(5), pp. 483–500.
Hocheng, H. , and Puw, H. Y. , 1992, “ On Drilling Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset and Thermoplastics,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 32, pp. 583–592.
Yang, X. , and Liu, C. R. , 1999, “ Machining Titanium and Its Alloys,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 3(1), pp. 107–139.
Hartung, P. , and Kramer, B. , 1982, “ Tool Wear in Titanium Machining,” CIRP Ann., 31(1), pp. 75–80.
Dornfeld, D. A. , Kim, J. S. , Dechow, H. , Hewson, J. , and Chen, L. J. , 1999, “ Drilling Burr Formation in Titanium Alloy, Ti–6Al–4V,” CIRP Ann., 48(1), pp. 73–76.
Schrock, D. , and Kwon, P. , 2012, “ Evidence of Phase Dependent Tool Wear in Ti–6Al–4V Turning Experiments Using PCD and Carbide Inserts,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2012-7332.
Machado, A. R. , and Wallbank, J. , 1990, “ Machining of Titanium and Its Alloys—A Review,” J. Eng. Manuf., 204, pp. 53–60.
Bhowmick, S. , and Alpas, A. T. , 2013, “ The Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Drills in Thermally Assisted Drilling of Ti–6Al–4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061019.
Trent, E. M. , and Wright, P. K. , 2000, Metal Cutting, 4th ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Woburn, MA, pp. 157–159, 195–199.
Rahim, E. A. , and Sharif, S. , 2007, “ Tool Failure Modes and Wear Mechanism of Coated Carbide Tools When Drilling Ti–6Al–4V,” Int. J. Precis. Technol., 1(1), pp. 30–39.
Kim, D. , Sturtevant, C. , and Ramulu, M. , 2013, “ Usage of PCD Tool in Drilling of Titanium/Graphite Hybrid Composite Laminate,” Int. J. Mach. Machinabil. Mater., 13, pp. 276–288.
Wang, B. , Gao, H. , Cao, B. , Zhuang, Y. , and Zhao, Z. , 2014, “ Mechanism of Damage Generation During Drilling of Carbon/Epoxy Composites and Titanium Alloy Stacks,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, 228(7), pp. 698–706.
Poutord, A. , Rossi, F. , Poulachon, G. , M'Saoubi, R. , and Abrivard, G. , 2013, “ Local Approach of Wear in Drilling Ti6Al4V/CFRP for Stack Modeling,” Procedia CIRP, 8, pp. 316–321.
Isbilir, O. , and Ghassemieh, E. , 2014, “ Comparative Study of Tool Life and Hole Quality in Drilling of CFRP/Titanium Stack Using Coated Carbide Drill,” Mach. Sci. Technol.: Int. J., 17(3), pp. 380–409.
Faria, P. E. , Campos, R. F. , Abaro, A. M. , Godoy, G. C. D. , and Davim, J. P. , 2008, “ Thrust Force and Wear Assessment When Drilling Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composite,” J. Compos. Mater., 42(14), pp. 1401–1414.
Rawat, S. , and Attia, H. , 2009, “ Wear Mechanisms and Tool Life Management of WC–Co Drills During High Speed Drilling of Woven Carbon Fibre Composites,” Wear, 267, pp. 1022–1030.
Li, R. , Hegde, P. , and Shih, A. J. , 2007, “ High-Throughput Drilling of Titanium Alloys,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47, pp. 63–74.
Jawaid, A. , Sharif, S. , and Koksal, S. , 2000, “ Evaluation of Wear Mechanisms of Coated Carbide Tools When Face Milling Titanium Alloy,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 99, pp. 266–274.
Colligan, K. , and Ramulu, M. , 1991, “ Delamination in Surface Plies of Graphite/Epoxy Caused by the Edge Trimming Process,” Processing and Manufacturing of Composite Materials, 112th ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, Dec. 1–6, pp. 113–125.
Ramulu, M. , Kim, D. , and Choi, G. , 2003, “ Frequency Analysis and Characterization in Orthogonal Cutting of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composites,” Composites Part A, 34, pp. 949–962.
Faria, P. E. , Campos Rubio, J. C. , Abaro, A. M. , and Davim, J. P. , 2008, “ Dimensional and Geometric Deviations Induced by Drilling of Polymeric Composite,” J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 28(19), pp. 2353–2363.
Abu-Mahfouz, I. , 2003, “ Drilling Wear Detection and Classification Using Vibration Signals and Artificial Neural Network,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43, pp. 707–720.
Pan, C. T. , and Hocheng, H. , 1996, “ The Anisotropic Heat-Affected Zone in the Laser Grooving of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Material,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 62, pp. 54–60.
Zeilmann, R. P. , and Weingaertner, W. L. , 2006, “ Analysis of Temperature During Drilling of Ti6Al4V With Minimal Quantity of Lubricant,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 179, pp. 124–127.
Kim, D. , Doan, X. , and Ramulu, M. , 2005, “ Drilling Performance and Machinability of PIXA-M and PEEK Thermoplastic Composites,” J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater., 18(3), pp. 195–217.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Force signal profile and maximum drilling forces versus number of holes drilled by the different tool types and conditions (a) maximum thrust and (b) maximum torque

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

SEM images for WC and PCD drills for various holes in CFRP/Ti stacks [9] (a) WC, high spindle speed condition, (b) WC, low spindle speed condition, and (c) PCD, low spindle speed condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Photos of (a) experimental setup and (b) PCD and WC twist drills

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The hole quality features and their measurement of the CFRP–Ti stacks focused for this study (a) schematics of the hole quality features, (b) CFRP hole entry delamination length measurement, (c) definition of roundness, and (d) photo of CFRP hole exit damage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Maximum entry delamination max length over the CFRP holes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Hole profiles for various hole numbers made by WC and PCD drills

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Midpoint hole diameter and roundness versus hole number for CFRP plates (fresh tool diameter = 9.525 mm or the dotted lines) (a) CFRP-hole diameter and (b) CFRP-roundness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Midpoint hole diameter and roundness versus hole number for Ti plates (tool diameter = 9.525 mm): (a) Ti-hole diameter and (b) Ti-roundness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Damage at CFRP/Ti interface (a) SEM picture of CFRP hole exit damage and a CFRP exit hole thermal–mechanical damage measurement example, (b) cross section of Ti entry burr (white: Ti, black: bakelite mount)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

CFRP exit hole damage, (a) discoloration and mechanical damages at CFRP exit holes by WC drill in the high-speed condition, (b) discoloration and mechanical damages at CFRP exit holes by WC drill in the low-speed condition, and discoloration and mechanical damages at CFRP exit holes by PCD drill in the low-speed condition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Ti entry burr height for WC drills and PCD drill

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

CFRP Ra and Rt for 20 hole intervals

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

SEM images of uncut fibers, fiber pullout, and surface scratches in CFRP hole and surface scratches of Ti hole: (a) CFRP uncut fibers, (b) CFRP fiber pullout, (c) CFRP surface scratches, and (d)Ti hole surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Ti exit burr height versus hole number

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In