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Research Papers

Measurement of the Friction Force Inside the Needle in Biopsy

[+] Author and Article Information
Weisi Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109;
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 110042, Liaoning, China
e-mail: liweisi@umich.edu

Yancheng Wang

Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing
Technology of Zhejiang Province,
Zhejiang University,
Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang, China
e-mail: yanchwang@zju.edu.cn

Valens Nteziyaremye

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: vnteziyaremye@ufl.edu

Hitomi Yamaguchi

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611
e-mail: hitomiy@ufl.edu.

Albert J. Shih

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109;
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: shiha@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received September 17, 2014; final manuscript received July 7, 2015; published online October 1, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 138(3), 031003 (Oct 01, 2015) Paper No: MANU-14-1479; doi: 10.1115/1.4031050 History: Received September 17, 2014; Revised July 07, 2015

Core needle biopsy (CNB) is widely used in active surveillance, which is the current standard of care for low risk prostate cancers. A longer biopsy sample length may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. To increase the biopsy sample length, the magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) technique was applied to decrease the needle inner friction force, which may hinder the tissue from entering the lumen of the biopsy needle. To assess the effectiveness of these MAF polished needles as compared to the unpolished needles, a method to measure the three components of axial force during hollow needle insertion—tip cutting force, inner friction force, and outer friction force—was developed. Six tissue-mimicking samples of different lengths were used to find the linear relationship between the sum of the cutting force and inner friction force and the phantom length or contact length. Linear regression method was used to extrapolate and estimate the tip cutting force and the inner friction force. With this method, the difference between the inner friction force of the needles with and without polishing was found. The results showed that the unpolished needles had an inner friction force 40–50% higher and a tip cutting force 22% higher than their MAF polished counterparts. We also found that MAF polished needles had an average of 9% longer contact length between the sample and the inner wall than unpolished needles, indicating that a longer sample can be extracted at a lower friction force. The results of our investigation implied that reducing the inner surface roughness of a biopsy needle could reduce inner friction forces.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Measurement of Fo and Fc + Fi in hollow needle insertion: (a) schematic of three axial force components (Fo, Fc, and Fi) during needle insertion, (b) maximum needle insertion force F1 before the tip exiting the sample, and (c) needle insertion force F2 after the tip exiting the sample

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Fig. 2

Estimating the needle cutting force Fc0 by extrapolation from Fc + Fi of three sample lengths

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Fig. 3

Six PVC samples with length: 45 mm, 40 mm, 33 mm, 26 mm, 18 mm, and 9 mm

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Fig. 4

(a) An overview of the experimental setup for needle insertion and measurement of insertion force, (b) a close-up view of needle entrance to the PVC phantom sample and the needle tip, and (c) six needle insertion positions along the cylindrical sample

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Fig. 5

Needle tip grinding setup: (a) overall grinding setup, (b) customized needle fixture, and (c) needle tip geometry

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Fig. 6

Surface profile of needle inside surface in Zygo Newview™ 7200 white light interferometer: (a) unpolished and (b) MAF polished, and microscope pictures: (c) unpolished and (d) MAF polished

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Fig. 7

Insertion force profiles of unpolished and MAF polished needles on the 45 mm long sample

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Fig. 8

The linear regression analysis of Fc + Fi versus phantom length for unpolished and MAF polished needles

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Fig. 9

(a) Experimental observation of the protrusion of the phantom sample core after needle exited the sample, (b) the compression of the internal phantom core during needle insertion, and (c) the contact length lc, protrusion length lp, and phantom length l after the needle exited the phantom sample

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Fig. 10

Experimentally measured phantom core (a) protrusion length lp and (b) contact length lc of the phantom core for unpolished and MAF polished needles

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Fig. 11

The linear regression analysis of Fc + Fi versus contact length lc for unpolished and MAF polished needles

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