0
Research Papers

Mesoscale Robotic Assembly With Orthogonal Optical Alignment for UV-LIGA Parts

[+] Author and Article Information
Xin Ye

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
5 South Zhongguancun Street,
Haidian District,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: yexin@bit.edu.cn

Xiaofeng Zhang

Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering,
104 Youyi Street, Haidian District,
Beijing 100094, China
e-mail: 531976180@qq.com

Bile Wan

Beijing Institute of Spacecraft
Environment Engineering,
104 Youyi Street,
Haidian District,
Beijing 100094, China
e-mail: xiaole0220@126.com

Zhijing Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
5 South Zhongguancun Street,
Haidian District,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: zhzhj@bit.edu.cn

Pan Liu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
5 South Zhongguancun Street,
Haidian District,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: liupan@bit.edu.cn

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received March 7, 2013; final manuscript received March 22, 2015; published online April 28, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jaime Camelio.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(3), 031021 (Jun 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-13-1088; doi: 10.1115/1.4030269 History: Received March 07, 2013; Revised March 22, 2015; Online April 28, 2015

This paper proposes an assembly system for ultraviolet-lithographie galvanik abformung (UV-LIGA) parts with a robotic manipulator. Both images of base part and object part could be obtained simultaneously from an in-house orthogonal optical alignment vision system. Two microgrippers were introduced to realize the reliable clamping. An initial calibration method was presented to ensure assembly accuracy. Assembly experiments were conducted with success rates of 80% and the time consumption of 20 min for all four parts assembly. Suspected causes of failure are motion mechanisms' uncertainty, part dislocation resulted from inertia force when microgripper is moving, and the error which is produced in the detection process because of random factors.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Lehr, H., 1995, The LIGA Technique (Commercial Brochure), IMM GmbH, Mainz-Hechtsheim, Germany, pp. 138–145.
Christenson, T. R., and Guckel, H., 1995, “Deep X-Ray Lithography for Micromechanics,” Proc. SPIE2639, pp. 134–145. [CrossRef]
Madou, M. J., 2002, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 325–326.
Popa, D. O., and Stephanou, H. E., 2004, “Micro and Mesoscale Robotic Assembly,” J. Manuf. Processes, 6(1), pp. 52–71. [CrossRef]
Chu, H. K., Mills, J. K., and Cleghorn, W. L., 2012, “Automated Parallel Microassembly for MEMS Application,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 22(3), p. 035017. [CrossRef]
Chu, H. K., Mills, J. K., and Cleghorn, W. L., 2010, “Parallel Microassembly With a Robotic Manipulation System,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 20(12), p. 125027. [CrossRef]
“FC150 Automated Device Bonder Brochure,” pp. 1–2, http://www.set-sas.fr/file/fichetechniquefc150.pdf
Aarts, A. A. A., Neves, H. P., Puers, R. P., and Van, H. C., 2008, “An Interconnect for Out-of-Plane Assembled Biomedical Probe Arrays,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 18(6), p. 064004. [CrossRef]
Popa, D., Murthy, R., Mittal, M., Sin, J., and Stephanou, H., 2006, “M3-Modular Multi-Scale Assembly System for MEMS Packaging,” 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Beijing, China, Oct. 9–15, pp. 3712–3717. [CrossRef]
Das, A. N., Zhang, P., Lee, W. H., Popa, D., and Stephanou, H., 2007, “μ3: Multiscale, Deterministic Micro-Nano Assembly System for Construction of On-Wafer Microrobots,” 2007 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Rome, Italy, Apr. 10–14, pp. 461–466.
Nelson, B. J., Zhou, Y., and Vikramaditya, B., 1998, “Sensor-Based Microassembly of Hybrid MEMS Devices,” IEEE Control Syst., 18(6), pp. 35–45. [CrossRef]
Dechev, N., Basha, M., Chaudhuri, S. K., and Safavi-Naeini, S., 2006, “Microassembly of 3D Micromirrors as Building Elements for Optical MEMS Switching,” Proc. SPIE6376, p. 63760C. [CrossRef]
Saini, R., Jandric, Z., Tsui, K., and Udeshi, T., 2004, “Assembled Micro-Electromechanical-Systems Microcolumn From a Single Layer Silicon Process,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B, 22(6), pp. 3168–3173. [CrossRef]
Murthy, R., Das, A., and Popa, D. O., 2008, “ARRIpede: An Assembled Micro Crawler,” 8th IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, NANO ‘08, Arlington, TX, Aug. 18–21, pp. 833–836. [CrossRef]
Lai, K. W. C., Chung, P. S., Li, M., and Li, W. J., 2004, “Automated Micro-Assembly of Surface MEMS Mirrors by Centrifugal Force,” 2004 International Conference on Intelligent Mechatronics and Automation, Chengdu, China, Aug. 26–31, pp. 23–28. [CrossRef]
Feddema, J. T., and Christenson, T. R., 1999, “Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components Tutorial on Modeling and Control of Micro- and Nano-Manipulation,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Detroit, MI, pp. 1–17.
Tsui, K., Geisberger, A. A., Ellis, E., and Skidmore, G. D., 2004, “Micromachined End-Effector and Techniques for Directed MEMS Assembly,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 14(4), pp. 542–549. [CrossRef]
Peshkin, M. A., and Sanderson, A. C., 1988, “Planning Robotic Manipulation Strategies for Workpieces That Slide,” J. Rob. Autom., 4(5), pp. 524–531. [CrossRef]
Latombe, J., 1991, Robot Motion Planning, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Germany, pp. 230–239. [CrossRef]
Erdmann, M., 1996, “An Exploration of Nonprehensile Two-Palm Manipulation,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 17(5), pp. 485–503. [CrossRef]
Akella, S., Huang, W. H., Lynch, K. M., and Mason, M. T., 1997, “Sensorless Parts Feeding With a One Joint Robot,” Algorithms for Robotic Motion and Manipulation, A. K. Peters, Boston, MA, pp. 229–237.
Chen, J., Goldberg, K., Overmars, M. H., Halperin, D., Bohringer, K. F., and Zhuang, Y., 1998, “Shape Tolerance in Feeding and Fixturing,” Third International Workshop on Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, pp. 297–311.
Stappen, A. F., Berretty, R. P., Goldberg, K., and Overmars, M. H., 2001, “Geometry and Part Feeding,” Modelling of Sensor-Based Intelligent Robot Systems (Lecture Notes in Computer Science), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 259–281.
Boothroyd, G., 1991, Assembly Automation and Product Design, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 190–198.
Rizzi, A. A., and Hollis, R. L., 1998, “Opportunities for Increased Intelligence and Autonomy in Robotic Systems for Manufacturing,” Robotics Research, Springer-Verlag, London, UK, pp. 141–151. [CrossRef]
Dewhurst, P., Knight, W., and Boothroyd, G., 2001, Product Design for Manufacture & Assembly Revised & Expanded, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 20–29.
Cheng, H. T., and Chen, H. P., 2014, “‘Adult’ Robot Enabled Learning Process in High Precision Assembly Automation,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(2), p. 021011. [CrossRef]
Witham, C. R., Beranek, M. W., Carlisle, B. R., Chan, E. Y., and Koshinz, D. G., 2000, “Fiber-Optic Pigtail Assembly and Attachment Alignment Shift Using a Low-Cost Robotic Platform,” 50th Technology Conference Electronic Components, Las Vegas, NV, May 21–24, pp. 21–25. [CrossRef]
Popa, D., Kang, B. H., and Sin, J., 2002, “Reconfigurable Microassembly System for Photonics Applications,” IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, Washington, DC, May 11–15, Vol. 2, pp. 1495–1500.
Tang, Y.-L., Zhang, Z.-J., Ye, X., and Zhang, X.-F., 2014, “Micro-Assembly Precise Coaxial Alignment Methodology Based on Surface Roughness and Reflectiveness Matching,” Assem. Autom., 34(2), pp. 141–150. [CrossRef]
Xin, Y., Chao, S., Zhijing, Z., Jun, G., and Yang, Y., 2014, “An Air-Filled Microgripper in Microassembly System With Coaxial Alignment Function,” Assem. Autom., 34(4), pp. 333–341. [CrossRef]
Xin, Y., Jun, G., Zhijing, Z., Chao, S., and Guangyuan, S., 2014, “An Improved Vision Calibration Method for Coaxial Alignment Microassembly,” Assem. Autom., 34(3), pp. 237–243. [CrossRef]
Ye, X., Zhang, Z. Z., and Zhang, X. F., 2011, “Force-Pose Nonlinear Mapping Algorithm for Assembling Micro-Mechanical System,” Adv. Mater. Res., 314–316, ISSN: 1022-6680, pp. 1829–1835. [CrossRef]
Dentinger, P. M., Clift, W. M., and Goods, S. H., 2002, “Removal of SU-8 Photoresist for Thick Film Applications,” Microelectron. Eng., 61–62, ISSN: 0167-9317 pp. 993–1000. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y., Zhang, Z. J., and Ye, X., 2011, “An Integrated Micro-Gripping System for the Assembly of Miniature,” Adv. Mater. Res., 317–319(Pt. 1), pp. 750–756. [CrossRef]
Faig, W., 1975, “Calibration of Close-Range Photogrammetric Systems: Mathematical Formulation,” Conference on Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Vol. 41, pp. 1479–1486.
Dainis, A., and Juberts, M., 1985, “Accurate Remote Measurement of Robot Trajectory Motion,” 1985 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 92–99. [CrossRef]
Ganapathy, S., 1984, “Decomposition of Transformation Matrices for Robot Vision,” 1984 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 130–139. [CrossRef]
Tsai, R. Y. A., 1987, “Versatile Camera Calibration Technique for High-Accuracy 3D Machine Vision Metrology Using Off-the-Shelf TV Camera and Lenses,” IEEE J. Rob. Autom., 3(4), pp. 323–344. [CrossRef]
Martins, H. A., Birk, J. R., and Kelley, R. B., 1981, “Camera Models Based on Data From Two Calibration Planes,” Comput. Graphics Imaging Process., 17(2), pp. 173–180. [CrossRef]
Wei, G., and Ma, S., 1991, “Two Plane Camera Calibration: A Unified Model,” IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR ‘91, Maui, HI, June 3–6, Vol. 3, pp. 133–138. [CrossRef]
Wu, J., and Chu, J., 2006, “Microscope Self-Calibration Technique for Tele-Micromanipulation System,” 5th International Workshop on Microfactories, Besancon, France, Oct. 25–27, pp. 184–191.
Potsaid, B., Bellouard, Y., and Wen, J. T., 2005, “Design of an Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope for Simultaneous Large Field of View and High Resolution,” 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2005, Barcelona, Spain, Apr. 18–22, pp. 460–465. [CrossRef]
Hartley, R., 1997, “Self-Calibration of Stationary Cameras,” Int. J. Comput. Vision, 22(1), pp. 5–23. [CrossRef]
Weng, J., and Cohen, P., 1992, “Camera Calibration With Distortion Models and Accuracy Evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 14(10), pp. 965–980. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The multi-DOF manipulator

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The absorption head in the first stage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The absorption microgripper in the second stage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

The schematic view of the system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of prism calibration: (a) + calibration board, (b) first step, (c) second step, (d) third step, and (e) forth step

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Calibration principle using optical micrometer: (a) principle diagram of calibration of A-position and (b) calibration experiment of A-position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Calibration templates

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Calibration of B and C combining with the orthogonal optical system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Line charts of deviation data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The contrast diagram of simultaneous image and timeshare image

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Two parts' alignment process: (a) the assembly process of pin locking structure, (b) the assembly process of spring, and (c) the assembly process of sliding block

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In