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Research Papers

A Generalized Feed Forward Dynamic Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Derefinement Finite Element Framework for Metal Laser Sintering—Part I: Formulation and Algorithm Development

[+] Author and Article Information
Nachiket Patil

3DSIM, LLC,
201 E. Jefferson Street,
Louisville, KY 40202
e-mail: nachiket.patil@3dsim.com

Deepankar Pal

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
J.B. Speed School of Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: d0pal001@louisville.edu

H. Khalid Rafi

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
J.B. Speed School of Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: khalidrafi@ntu.edu.sg

Kai Zeng

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
J.B. Speed School of Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: k0zeng01@louisville.edu

Alleyce Moreland, Adam Hicks, David Beeler

Mound Laser and Photonics Center,
2941 College Drive,
Kettering, OH 45420

Brent Stucker

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
J.B. Speed School of Engineering,
University of Louisville,
Louisville, KY 40292
e-mail: brent.stucker@louisville.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received January 29, 2014; final manuscript received March 11, 2015; published online July 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Jack Zhou.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(4), 041001 (Aug 01, 2015) (15 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4030059 History: Received January 29, 2014; Revised March 11, 2015; Online July 08, 2015

A novel multiscale thermal analysis framework has been formulated to extract the physical interactions involved in localized spatiotemporal additive manufacturing processes such as the metal laser sintering. The method can be extrapolated to any other physical phenomenon involving localized spatiotemporal boundary conditions. The formulated framework, named feed forward dynamic adaptive mesh refinement and derefinement (FFD-AMRD), reduces the computational burden and temporal complexity needed to solve the many classes of problems. The current study is based on application of this framework to metals with temperature independent thermal properties processed using a moving laser heat source. The melt pool diameters computed in the present study were compared with melt pool dimensions measured using optical micrographs. The strategy developed in this study provides motivation for the extension of this simulation framework for future work on simulations of metals with temperature-dependent material properties during metal laser sintering.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Geometry and (b) data structure of a three-level mesh tree [8]

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Fig. 2

An example of a three-level, block-structured AMR hierarchy [9]

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Fig. 3

Adaptive mesh with mesh distortion

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Fig. 4

Schematic diagram showing FFD-AMRD dynamic mesh

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Fig. 6

Schematic showing old mesh configuration element boundaries (lines) and next mesh configuration nodes (square dots)

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Fig. 7

Target element (old mesh configuration) for illustrated nodes (next mesh configuration)

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Fig. 8

3D extruded fixed coarse mesh generation

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Fig. 9

3D extruded independent fine mesh generation

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Fig. 10

FFD-AMRD mesh, stiffness, and specific heat generation matrix

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Fig. 11

Dynamic boundary condition of the one-dimensional problem

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Fig. 12

Plot of temperature dependent conductivity and volumetric heat capacity in SI units plotted against temperature in Kelvins used in case study 1. For Ti6Al4V material.

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Fig. 13

One-dimensional line elements

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Fig. 14

Surface boundary conditions for the metal laser sintering problem which includes convection, laser flux and fixed temperature boundary conditions

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Fig. 15

Temperature distribution in 1D space

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Fig. 16

Thermal conductivity distribution for nonlinear and linear cases of the one-dimensional problem at three different times plotted against nodes

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Fig. 17

Volumetric heat capacity (ρc) for nonlinear and linear cases of the one-dimensional problem at three different times plotted against nodes

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Fig. 18

Comparison of thermal contours. The melt pool diameter in (b) is 125 μm.

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Fig. 19

Optical microscopy image of microstructure showing grain boundaries along the melt pool boundary

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