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Research Papers

Characterization and Modeling of Microscale Preplaced Powder Cladding Via Fiber Laser

[+] Author and Article Information
Santanu Paul

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India
e-mail: santanupaul@iitb.ac.in

Ishank Gupta

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India
e-mail: ishank20@gmail.com

Ramesh K. Singh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,
Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India
e-mail: rsingh@iitb.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received August 25, 2014; final manuscript received January 25, 2015; published online March 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(3), 031019 (Jun 01, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1446; doi: 10.1115/1.4029922 History: Received August 25, 2014; Revised January 25, 2015; Online March 12, 2015

Laser cladding (LC) is a material deposition technique, in which a laser beam is used to deposit one or several layers of a certain clad material onto a substrate to improve its wear or corrosion resistance. It can also be used for structural repair. Consequently, it is of interest to characterize the residual stresses and the microstructure along with the clad geometry as a function of process parameters. A 100 W fiber laser and focusing optics capable of producing very small spot sizes (∼10 μm) have been integrated with a micromachining center. This paper focuses on providing a comprehensive metallurgical and mechanical characterization of microscale LC of preplaced powdered mixture of cobalt and titanium on IS 2062 (ASTM A36) substrate. Parametric studies were conducted by varying the scanning velocity, laser power, and spot size to produce clad layers well bonded to the substrate. The results show that the width and height of the cladding increases up to 28% and 36%, respectively, due to the variation in the laser parameters. An increase of up to 85% in the microhardness is observed in the cladded layer with presence of Ti–Co intermetallic compounds at the interface, highlighting the application of the process in improving subsurface properties of existing components. The residual stresses obtained in the cladded layer are compressive in nature, indicating the potential application of this technique for repair of structures. In addition, a finite element model has been developed for predicting the clad geometry using a moving Gaussian heat source. Molten region is determined from the thermal model and Tanner's law has been used to account for spreading of the molten layer to accurately predict the clad geometry. The model predicts clad geometry with reasonable prediction errors less than 10% for most cases with stronger dependence on scan velocities in comparison to laser power.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of preplaced LC

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Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup and (b) schematic of experimental setup

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Fig. 3

Binary phase diagram of Co–Ti [19]

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Fig. 4

(a) Optical images of cladded samples and (b) cross section of the cladded sample showing regions 1, 2, and 3 chosen for hardness tests

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Fig. 5

(a) Weight percentages of elements in the surface of the clad and (b) percentage of cobalt at various locations along cross section of clad

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Fig. 6

Points chosen for EBSD analysis

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Fig. 7

(a) Results for point at the interface and substrate and (b) binary phase diagram for Co–Ti [19]

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Fig. 8

Variation of clad height and width as a function of: (a) scanning velocity, (b) laser power, and (c) beam diameter (process parameters: laser power = 100 W, scanning velocity = 100 mm/min, and beam diameter = 28 μm)

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Fig. 9

(a) Substrate regions with indenter (hardness—102 HV) and (b) clad regions with indenter (hardness—186 HV)

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Fig. 10

Variation of clad hardness with: (a) scanning velocity, (b) laser power, and (c) beam diameter (process parameters: laser power = 100 W, scanning velocity = 100 mm/min, and beam diameter = 28 μm)

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Fig. 11

(a) Directions of scan for XRD tests; variation of residual stresses with: (b) scanning velocity, (c) laser power, and (d) beam diameter (process parameters: laser power = 100 W, scanning velocity = 100 mm/min, and beam diameter = 28 μm

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Fig. 12

Modeling of preplaced LC

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Fig. 13

Algorithm for thermal model for predicting melt-pool dimensions

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Fig. 14

Representation of computational geometry along with loading and boundary conditions

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Fig. 15

Variation of computed value of clad width with: (a) scanning velocity and (b) laser power (process parameters: laser power = 100 W, scanning velocity = 100 mm/min, and beam diameter = 28 μm)

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Fig. 16

(a) Temperature distribution of layer at 0.6 s and (b) contour of vaporized region and molten zone

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Fig. 17

Temperature distributions across: (a) depth from the clad surface and (b) distance from the centerline of clad for 100 W laser power and 28 μm beam diameter

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Fig. 18

Temperature distributions across: (a) depth from the clad surface and (b) distance from the centerline of clad for 100 mm/min scanning speed and 28 μm beam diameter

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