Research Papers

Tool Geometries Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy T-Joint Using Taguchi Method to Improve the Mechanical Behavior

[+] Author and Article Information
Faiz F. Mustafa

Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering,
University of Baghdad,
Baghdad 10071, Iraq
e-mail: faizalrawy@yahoo.com

Ali H. Kadhym

Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering,
University of Baghdad,
Baghdad 10071, Iraq
e-mail: kadhumali59@yahoo.com

Hiba H. Yahya

Automated Manufacturing Department,
Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering,
University of Baghdad,
Baghdad 10071, Iraq
e-mail: lunar_cycle86@yahoo.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 26, 2014; final manuscript received February 13, 2015; published online March 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(3), 031018 (Jun 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1295; doi: 10.1115/1.4029921 History: Received May 26, 2014; Revised February 13, 2015; Online March 12, 2015

The effect of friction stir welding (FSW) T-joints for 3 mm AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy plates on mechanical properties has been investigated in the current work by using the nine different tool shapes that were designed according to Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) without changing the process parameters (tool rotation speed, welding speed, tool tilt angle, plunge depth, and die radii). Four variable geometrical parameters (shoulder diameter (mm), pin diameter (mm), pin angle (α, deg), and groove pin shape) with three levels for each parameter have been used. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio technique was performed for analyzing results (ultimate tensile strength across the skins (UTSSkins) and ultimate tensile strength across the stringers (UTSStringers)) using the statistical software (minitabtm® 16) to establish the best optimum condition. The conformation test was also performed by fulfilling the welding process at the optimum condition to compare the theoretical and experimental results. In addition, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique was performed using the statistical software (design of experiments, doe pro xl) to identify the significant factors affecting on the (UTSSkins and UTSStringers).

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Thomas, W., Nicholas, E., Needham, J., Murch, M., Smith, P., and Dawes, C., 1995, “Friction Stir Butt Welding,” GB Patent Application No. 9125978.8, and U.S. Patent No. 5,460,317.
Calvin Blignault, B., 2002, “Design, Development and Analysis of the Friction Stir Welding Process,” M. Sc. thesis, Mechanical Engineering, Faculty: Electrical, Industrial & Mechanical Engineering, Port Elizabeth Technikon, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, pp. 161–234.
Fratini, L., Buffa, G., Filice, L., and Gagliardi, F., 2006, “FSW of AA6082-T6 T-Joints: Process Engineering and Performance Measurement,” J. Eng. Manuf., Part B, 220(5), pp. 669–676. [CrossRef]
Babu, N., Kumar, A., and Davidson, M., 2011, “A Review of Friction Stir Welding of AA6061 Aluminum Alloy,” J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 6(4), pp. 61–63.
Indira, R., Marpu, R., and Kumar, A., 2011, “A Study of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welded AA 6061 Aluminum Alloy in O and T6 Conditions,” J. Eng. Appl. Sci., 6(2), pp. 61–66.
Zhou, G., Yang, X., Cui, L., Zhang, Z., and Xu, X., 2012, “Study on the Microstructures and Tensile Behaviors of Friction Stir Welded T-Joints for AA6061-T4 Alloys,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 21(10), pp. 2131–2139. [CrossRef]
Schwartz, Mel M., 2011, Innovations in Materials Manufacturing, Fabrication, and Environmental Safety, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [CrossRef]
Vidala, C., Infante, V., Pecas, P., and Vilaca, P., 2013, “Application of Taguchi Method in the Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters of an Aeronautic Aluminum Alloy,” Int. J. Adv. Mater. Manuf. Charac., 3(1), pp. 21–26.
Choi, H., Robust Design/Taguchi Method, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Chap. 12.
Makki, K., 2003, “Experimental Investigation of T-Section Welding Using Friction Stir Welding Process of Aluminum,” M.S. thesis, Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq, pp. 1–88.
Cui, L., Yang, X., Zhou, G., Xu, X., and Shen, Z., 2012, “Characteristics of Defects and Tensile Behaviors on Friction Stir Welded AA6061-T4 T-Joints,” J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 543, pp. 58–68. [CrossRef]
Vagh, A., and Pandya, S., 2012, “Influence of Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded AA 2014-T6 Alloy Using Taguchi Orthogonal Array,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Emerging Technol., 2(1), pp. 51–58.
Mohanty, H., Venkateswarlu, D., Mahapatra, M., Kumar, P., and Mandal, N., 2012, “Modeling the Effects of Tool Probe Geometries and Process Parameters on Friction Stirred Aluminum Welds,” J. Mech. Eng. Autom., 2(4), pp. 74–79. [CrossRef]
Fujji, H., Cui, L., Maeda, M., and Nogi, K., 2006, “Effect of Tool Shape on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloys,” J. Mater. Sci. Eng., 419(1–2), pp. 25–31. [CrossRef]
Doos, Q., and Mahmood, S., 2011, “The Influence of Tool Geometry of Friction Stir Welds on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of 2218-T72 Aluminum Alloy,” J. Eng., 17(5), pp. 1242–1259.
Lakshminarayanan, A., and Balasubramanian, V., 2008, “Process Parameters Optimization for Friction Stir Welding of RDE−40 Aluminum Alloy Using Taguchi Technique,” J. Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc. China, 18(3), pp. 548–554. [CrossRef]
Herrera, A., 2008, 6061−T6 Aluminum Material Notes, Glemco Inc., Leander, TX.
Roy, R., 1990, A Primer on the Taguchi Method, 1st ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Minitab Company, “MINITABTM Statistical Software Release 16,” Minitab Inc., State College, PA, http://www.minitab.com
SigmaZone, “DOE PRO XL Software for Microsoft Excel,” http://sigmazone.com/doepro.htm


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The explicative graphing of FSW T-joints process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Specimen of hoop stress test. (b) Specimen of T-pull test. (c) The clamping device for T-pull test.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The dimensions of tensile specimen and standard tensile specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The final welded part of T-joint

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Milling machine and fixture parts for the (T-joints) FSW

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

The nine manufactured tools

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The required dimensions of skin and stringer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Geometrical parameters for the FSW process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) The percentage of contribution of the factors (A, B, C, and D) for UTSSkins. (b) The percentage of contribution of the significant factors for the UTSSkins at the (90%) confidence.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) The percentage of contribution of the factors (A, B, C, and D) for UTSStringers. (b) The percentage of contribution of the significant factors for the UTSStringers at the (90%) confidence.




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In