0
Research Papers

Alternating Force Based Drop-on-Demand Microdroplet Formation and Three-Dimensional Deposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Long Zhao, Rui Yao, Feng Lin

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Biomanufacturing Center,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
Biomanufacturing and Rapid Forming
Technology Key Laboratory of Beijing,
Beijing 100084, China
Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials
Processing Technology,
Ministry of Education,
Beijing 100084, China

Karen Chang Yan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The College of New Jersey,
Ewing, NJ 08628

Wei Sun

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Biomanufacturing Center, Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
Biomanufacturing and Rapid Forming
Technology
Key Laboratory of Beijing,
Beijing 100084, China
Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials
Processing Technology,
Ministry of Education,
Beijing 100084, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Drexel University,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
e-mails: weisun@tsinghua.edu.cn; sunwei@drexel.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 20, 2014; final manuscript received February 9, 2015; published online March 2, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Joseph Beaman.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(3), 031009 (Jun 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1237; doi: 10.1115/1.4029803 History: Received April 20, 2014; Revised February 09, 2015; Online March 02, 2015

Drop-on-demand (DOD) microdroplet formation and deposition play an important role in additive manufacturing, particularly in printing of three-dimensional (3D) in vitro biological models for pharmacological and pathological studies, for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, and for building of cell-integrated microfluidic devices. In development of a DOD based microdroplet deposition process for 3D cell printing, the droplet formation, controlled on-demand deposition and at the single-cell level, and most importantly, maintaining the viability and functionality of the cells during and after the printing are all remaining to be challenged. This report presents our recent study on developing a novel DOD based microdroplet deposition process for 3D printing by utilization of an alternating viscous and inertial force jetting (AVIFJ) mechanism. The results include an analysis of droplet formation mechanism, the system configuration, and experimental study of the effects of process parameters on microdroplet formation. Sodium alginate solutions are used for microdroplet formation and deposition. Key process parameters include actuation signal waveforms, nozzle dimensional features, and solution viscosity. Sizes of formed microdroplets are examined by measuring the droplet diameter and velocity. Results show that by utilizing a nozzle at a 45 μm diameter, the size of the formed microdroplets is in the range of 52–72 μm in diameter and 0.4–2.0 m/s in jetting speed, respectively. Reproducibility of the system is also examined and the results show that the deviation of the formed microdroplet diameter and the droplet deposition accuracy is within 6% and 6.2 μm range, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate a high controllability and precision for the developed DOD microdroplet deposition system with a potential for precise cell printing.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Sweet, R. G., 1965, “High Frequency Recording With Electrostatically Deflected Ink Jets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum., 36(2), pp. 131–136. [CrossRef]
Ben-Tzvi, P., and Rone, W., 2010, “Microdroplet Generation in Gaseous and Liquid Environments,” Microsyst. Technol., 16(3), pp. 333–356. [CrossRef]
Wijshoff, H., 2010, “The Dynamics of the Piezo Inkjet Printhead Operation,” Phys. Rep., 491(4–5), pp. 77–177. [CrossRef]
Phamduy, T. B., Raof, N. A., Schiele, N. R., Yan, Z., Corr, D. T., Huang, Y., Xie, Y., and Chrisey, D. B., 2012, “Laser Direct-Write of Single Microbeads Into Spatially-Ordered Patterns,” Biofabrication, 4(2), p. 025006. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Beyer, C., 2014, “Strategic Implications of Current Trends in Additive Manufacturing,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 064701. [CrossRef]
Ming, F., Chandra, S., and Park, C. B., 2008, “Building Three-Dimensional Objects by Deposition of Molten Metal Droplets,” Rapid Prototyping J., 14(1), pp. 44–52. [CrossRef]
Chao, Y., Qi, L., Xiao, Y., Luo, J., and Zhou, J., 2012, “Manufacturing of Micro Thin-Walled Metal Parts by Micro-Droplet Deposition,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 212(2), pp. 484–491. [CrossRef]
Tapia, G., and Elwany, A., 2014, “A Review on Process Monitoring and Control in Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 060801. [CrossRef]
Denlinger, E. R., Irwin, J., and Michaleris, P., 2014, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Additive Manufacturing Large Parts,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061007. [CrossRef]
Luo, J., Pan, H., and Kinzel, E. C., 2014, “Additive Manufacturing of Glass,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061024. [CrossRef]
Dijksman, J. F., Duineveld, P. C., Hack, M. J. J., Pierik, A., Rensen, J., Rubingh, J. E., Schram, I., and Vernhout, M. M., 2007, “Precision Ink Jet Printing of Polymer Light Emitting Displays,” J. Mater. Chem., 17(6), pp. 511–522. [CrossRef]
Tseng, H.-Y., and Subramanian, V., 2011, “All Inkjet-Printed, Fully Self-Aligned Transistors for Low-Cost Circuit Applications,” Org. Electron., 12(2), pp. 249–256. [CrossRef]
Arrabito, G., and Pignataro, B., 2010, “Inkjet Printing Methodologies for Drug Screening,” Anal. Chem., 82(8), pp. 3104–3107. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Xu, F., Celli, J., Rizvi, I., Moon, S., Hasan, T., and Demirci, U., 2011, “A Three-Dimensional In Vitro Ovarian Cancer Coculture Model Using a High-Throughput Cell Patterning Platform,” Biotechnol. J., 6(2), pp. 204–212. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Boland, T., Xu, T., Damon, B., and Cui, X., 2006, “Application of Inkjet Printing to Tissue Engineering,” Biotechnol. J., 1(9), pp. 910–917. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Arai, K., Iwanaga, S., Toda, H., Genci, C., Nishiyama, Y., and Nakamura, M., 2011, “Three-Dimensional Inkjet Biofabrication Based on Designed Images,” Biofabrication, 3(3), p. 034113. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yu, Y., Zhang, Y., and Ozbolat, I. T., 2014, “A Hybrid Bioprinting Approach for Scale-Up Tissue Fabrication,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061013. [CrossRef]
Xu, C., Zhang, Z., Christensen, K., Huang, Y., Fu, J., and Markwald, R. R., 2014, “Freeform Vertical and Horizontal Fabrication of Alginate-Based Vascular-Like Tubular Constructs Using Inkjetting,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061020. [CrossRef]
Bernacka-Wojcik, I., Senadeera, R., Wojcik, P. J., Silva, L. B., Doria, G., Baptista, P., Aguas, H., Fortunato, E., and Martins, R., 2010, “Inkjet Printed and ‘Doctor Blade’ TiO2 Photodetectors for DNA Biosensors,” Biosens. Bioelectron., 25(5), pp. 1229–1234. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zheng, Q., Lu, J., Chen, H., Huang, L., Cai, J., and Xu, Z., 2011, “Application of Inkjet Printing Technique for Biological Material Delivery and Antimicrobial Assays,” Anal. Biochem., 410(2), pp. 171–176. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rodriguez-Devora, J. I., Zhang, B., Reyna, D., Shi, Z. D., and Xu, T., 2012, “High Throughput Miniature Drug-Screening Platform Using Bioprinting Technology,” Biofabrication, 4(3), p. 035001. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yamaguchi, S., Ueno, A., Akiyama, Y., and Morishima, K., 2012, “Cell Patterning Through Inkjet Printing of One Cell Per Droplet,” Biofabrication, 4(4), p. 045005. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sun, W., Darling, A., Starly, B., and Nam, J., 2004, “Computer-Aided Tissue Engineering: Overview, Scope and Challenges,” Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem., 39(1), pp. 29–47. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Calvert, P., 2007, “Printing Cells,” Science, 318(5848), pp. 208–209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Mironov, V., Visconti, R. P., Kasyanov, V., Forgacs, G., Drake, C. J., and Markwald, R. R., 2009, “Organ Printing: Tissue Spheroids as Building Blocks,” Biomaterials, 30(12), pp. 2164–2174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jayasinghe, S. N., 2011, “Biojets in Regenerative Biology and Medicine,” Mater. Today, 14(5), pp. 202–211. [CrossRef]
Billiet, T., Vandenhaute, M., Schelfhout, J., Van Vlierberghe, S., and Dubruel, P., 2012, “A Review of Trends and Limitations in Hydrogel-Rapid Prototyping for Tissue Engineering,” Biomaterials, 33(26), pp. 6020–6041. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Melchels, F. P. W., Domingos, M. A. N., Klein, T. J., Malda, J., Bartolo, P. J., and Hutmacher, D. W., 2012, “Additive Manufacturing of Tissues and Organs,” Prog. Polym. Sci., 37(8), pp. 1079–1104. [CrossRef]
Xu, T., Zhao, W., Zhu, J. M., Albanna, M. Z., Yoo, J. J., and Atala, A., 2013, “Complex Heterogeneous Tissue Constructs Containing Multiple Cell Types Prepared by Inkjet Printing Technology,” Biomaterials, 34(1), pp. 130–139. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kasili, P. M., Cullum, B. M., Griffin, G. D., and Vo-Dinh, T., 2002, “Nanosensor for in vivo Measurement of the Carcinogen Benzo a Pyrene in a Single Cell,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 2(6), pp. 653–658. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rudensky, B., Paz, E., Altarescu, G., Raveh, D., Elstein, D., and Zimran, A., 2003, “Fluorescent Flow Cytometric Assay: A New Diagnostic Tool for Measuring Beta-Glucocerebrosidase Activity in Gaucher Disease,” Blood Cells, Mol., Dis., 30(1), pp. 97–99. [CrossRef]
Boland, T., Tao, X., Damon, B. J., Manley, B., Kesari, P., Jalota, S., and Bhaduri, S., 2007, “Drop-on-Demand Printing of Cells and Materials for Designer Tissue Constructs,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: C, 27(3), pp. 372–376. [CrossRef]
Dababneh, A. B., and Ozbolat, I. T., 2014, “Bioprinting Technology: A Current State-of-the-Art Review,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061016. [CrossRef]
Ikegawa, M., Ishii, E., Harada, N., and Takagishi, T., 2014, “Development of Ink-Particle Flight Simulation for Continuous Inkjet Printers,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(5), p. 051021. [CrossRef]
Fathi, S., Dickens, P., Khodabakhshi, K., and Gilbert, M., 2013, “Microcrystal Particles Behaviour in Inkjet Printing of Reactive Nylon Materials,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(1), p. 011009. [CrossRef]
Barron, J. A., Ringeisen, B. R., Kim, H., Spargo, B. J., and Chrisey, D. B., 2004, “Application of Laser Printing to Mammalian Cells,” Thin Solid Films, 453–454, pp. 383–387. [CrossRef]
Melissinaki, V., Gill, A. A., Ortega, I., Vamvakaki, M., Ranella, A., Haycock, J. W., Fotakis, C., Farsari, M., and Claeyssens, F., 2011, “Direct Laser Writing of 3D Scaffolds for Neural Tissue Engineering Applications,” Biofabrication, 3(4), p. 045005. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jayasinghe, S. N., Qureshi, A. N., and Eagles, P. A., 2006, “Electrohydrodynamic Jet Processing: An Advanced Electric-Field-Driven Jetting Phenomenon for Processing Living Cells,” Small, 2(2), pp. 216–219. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yao, R., Zhang, R. J., Luan, J., and Lin, F., 2012, “Alginate and Alginate/Gelatin Microspheres for Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Encapsulation and Differentiation,” Biofabrication, 4(2), p. 025007. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Wei, C., and Dong, J., 2014, “Development and Modeling of Melt Electrohydrodynamic-Jet Printing of Phase-Change Inks for High-Resolution Additive Manufacturing,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061010. [CrossRef]
Moon, S., Hasan, S. K., Song, Y. S., Xu, F., Keles, H. O., Manzur, F., Mikkilineni, S., Hong, J. W., Nagatomi, J., Haeggstrom, E., Khademhosseini, A., and Demirci, U., 2010, “Layer by Layer Three-Dimensional Tissue Epitaxy by Cell-Laden Hydrogel Droplets,” Tissue Eng., Part C, 16(1), pp. 157–166. [CrossRef]
Demirci, U., 2006, “Acoustic Picoliter Droplets for Emerging Applications in Semiconductor Industry and Biotechnology,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 15(4), pp. 957–966. [CrossRef]
Xu, T., Jin, J., Gregory, C., Hickman, J. J., and Boland, T., 2005, “Inkjet Printing of Viable Mammalian Cells,” Biomaterials, 26(1), pp. 93–99. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ringeisen, B. R., Spargo, B. J., and Wu, P. K., 2010, Cell and Organ Printing, Springer, New York, pp. 3–18.
Takahashi, S., Kitagawa, H., and Tomikawa, Y., 2002, “A Study of Liquid Dispensing Head Using Fluidic Inertia,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys, pp. 3442–3445. [CrossRef]
Li, R., Ashgriz, N., and Chandra, S., 2008, “Droplet Generation From Pulsed Micro-Jets,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(8), pp. 1679–1686. [CrossRef]
Barron, J. A., Krizman, D. B., and Ringeisen, B. R., 2005, “Laser Printing of Single Cells: Statistical Analysis, Cell Viability, and Stress,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 33(2), pp. 121–130. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Yusof, A., Keegan, H., Spillane, C. D., Sheils, O. M., Martin, C. M., O'Leary, J. J., Zengerle, R., and Koltay, P., 2011, “Inkjet-Like Printing of Single-Cells,” Lab Chip, 11(14), pp. 2447–2454. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chen, A. U., and Basaran, O. A., 2002, “A New Method for Significantly Reducing Drop Radius Without Reducing Nozzle Radius in Drop-on-Demand Drop Production,” Phys. Fluids, 14. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Microdroplet deposition system based on AVIFJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Principle of microdroplet formation based on AVIFJ and (b) process of microdroplet formation based on AVIFJ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Actuation waveforms: (a) quadratic wave, (b) sinusoidal wave, (c) triangular wave, (d) square wave, and (e) region of single droplet formation under various waveforms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Applied quadratic voltage waveform

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of the applied voltage on the microdroplet diameter (a) and the microdroplet velocity (b). (Printing condition: alginate concentration: 0.5% (w/v), nozzle diameter: 45 μm, frequency: 50 Hz, and height of liquid column H: 70 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of the signal frequency on the microdroplet diameter (a) and the microdroplet velocity (b). (Printing condition: alginate solution concentration: 0.5% (w/v), nozzle diameter: 45 μm, applied voltage U: 90 V, and height of liquid column H: 70 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of the duty ratio of nozzle elongation stage on the microdroplet diameter (a) and the microdroplet velocity (b). (Printing condition: alginate solution concentration: 0.5% (w/v), nozzle diameter: 45 μm, applied voltage U: 90 V, and height of liquid column H: 70 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Fine-tuning quadratic waveform can yield microdroplets with diameter very close to the nozzle diameter and (b) microsphere of 1% (w/v) alginate (CaCl2.cross-linking). (Printing condition: nozzle diameter: 95 μm, applied voltage U: 90 V, frequency: 50 Hz, and height of liquid column H: 70 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of the nozzle diameter on the diameter of microdroplet (a) and the velocity of microdroplet (b). (Printing condition: alginate solution concentration: 0.5% (w/v), nozzle diameter: 45 μm, applied voltage U: 90 V, frequency: 50 Hz, and height of liquid column H: 70 mm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison between the experimental data and the predictions from the fitted model: (a) the upper and lower limits of the applied voltage for forming single droplet versus the frequency of the actuation signal (viscosity = 4.3 mPa s and nozzle diameter = 45 μm); (b) the upper and lower limits of the applied voltage for forming single droplet versus the viscosity of the alginate solution (frequency = 50 Hz and nozzle diameter = 45 μm); (c) the upper and lower limits of the applied voltage for forming single droplet versus the diameter of the dispensing nozzle (frequency = 50 Hz and viscosity = 4.3 mPa s); (d) the 3D plot of the predictions of the upper and lower voltage limits rendered from the fitted model as a function the diameter of the dispensing nozzle and the viscosity of the alginate solution (frequency = 50 Hz); (e) the 3D plot of the predictions of the upper and lower voltage limits rendered from the fitted model as a function the diameter of the dispensing nozzle and the frequency of the actuation signal (viscosity = 4.3 mPa s); and (f) the 3D plot of the predictions of the upper and lower voltage limits rendered from the fitted model as a function the viscosity of the alginate solution and the frequency of the actuation signal (nozzle diameter = 45 μm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Micrograph of the printed microdroplet array and (b) distribution of the measured diameter of microdroplet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of the liquid column height on the diameter of microdroplet (a) and the velocity of microdroplet (b). (Printing condition: alginate solution concentration: 0.5% (w/v), nozzle diameter: 45 μm, applied voltage U: 90 V, and frequency: 50 Hz).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of the viscosity of alginate solution on the diameter of microdroplet (a) and the velocity of microdroplet (b). (Printing condition: nozzle diameter: 45 μm, applied voltage U: 90 V, frequency: 50 Hz, and height of liquid column H: 70 mm).

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In