Technical Brief

The Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Response of AISI D3 Tool Steel Punches

[+] Author and Article Information
Y. Arslan

Duzce University,
Duzce Vocational High School,
Uzunmustafa Mahallesi Duzce 81100, Turkey
e-mail: yusufarslan@duzce.edu.tr

I. Uygur

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Duzce University,
Konuralp Campus,
Duzce 81620, Turkey
e-mail: ilyasuygur@duzce.edu.tr

A. Jazdzewska

Department of Electrochemistry,
Corrosion and Materials Engineering,
Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12,
Gdansk 80-233, Poland
e-mail: paquitaxp@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received July 21, 2014; final manuscript received December 24, 2014; published online February 16, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(3), 034501 (Jun 01, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1403; doi: 10.1115/1.4029567 History: Received July 21, 2014; Revised December 24, 2014; Online February 16, 2015

Recently, deep cryogenic treatment is performed to improve the mechanical responses (wear, hardness, fatigue, and thermal conductivity) of various steel components. Researchers have tried to evaluate the eco-friendly and nontoxic process to optimize the parameters. Cold-shearing punches used to manufacture various holes that undergo severe impact loading and wear in the metal forming process. This study concerns the effect of soaking time (24 hr, 36 hr) at liquid nitrogen temperature (−145 °C) during the deep cryogenic treatment on the microstructural changes which are carbide distribution and retained austenite percentage of AISI D3 tool steel punches. It was shown that the deep cryogenic treatment reduces retained austenite and enhanced uniform distribution of carbide particles. It is concluded that for significantly improved punch life and performance, it is an advisable application of 36 hr deep cryogenic treatment.

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Fig. 7

Flank surface wear of punches after trial blank process. (a) 6000 strokes and (b) 40.000 strokes.

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Fig. 6

Top surface of the HT punch made of D3, before and after trial blank process

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Fig. 5

Variation of (a) top surface wear and (b) flank wear of the punches (5 mm diameter) made of AISI D3 tool steels

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Fig. 4

X-ray Diffraction line profiles (a) HT and (b) 36 CT specimens. The set of (hkl) in vertical direction indicates the 2θ positions of different diffraction planes of martensite, austenite, ferrite, Cr23 C6, Cr7C3, Fe3C, Fe7C, and M7C3 carbides.

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Fig. 3

SEM pictures: (a) HT, (b) 24 CT and typical EDX analysis of point 2 (c) and (d) 4 in HT specimen

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Fig. 2

Various diameters of punches and dies

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Fig. 1

A Schematic presentation of the heat treatment schedule consisting of hardening, deep cryogenic treatment, and tempering cycles of the punches

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Fig. 8

SEM micrograph of the top and flank surface (a) HT and (b) 36 CTT punches



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