Research Papers

Toward the Control of the EP3D Printed Surface

[+] Author and Article Information
Alvaro J. Rojas Arciniegas

Assistant Professor
Department of Automatics and Electronics,
College of Engineering,
Universidad Autonoma de Occidente,
Calle 25 No. 115-85,
Cali 760030, Colombia
e-mail: ajrojas@uao.edu.co

Marcos Esterman

Associate Professor
Industrial and Systems Engineering,
Kate Gleason College of Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
81 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: mxeeie@rit.edu

Juan C. Cockburn

Associate Professor
Computer Engineering,
Kate Gleason College of Engineering,
Rochester Institute of Technology,
83 Lomb Memorial Drive,
Rochester, NY 14623
e-mail: jcceec@rit.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received April 15, 2014; final manuscript received November 14, 2014; published online December 15, 2014. Assoc. Editor: David L. Bourell.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(2), 021012 (Apr 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1195; doi: 10.1115/1.4029184 History: Received April 15, 2014; Revised November 14, 2014; Online December 15, 2014

The extension of electrophotographic (EP) printing into the additive manufacturing space has been seen as a natural step for this technology; however, the self-insulating nature of the process has prevented the creation of structures beyond a limited number of layers where surface defects are evident. This paper examines two control strategies for EP-based three-dimensional (EP3D) printing that minimize the surface defects to obtain the accurate reproduction of the intended 3D geometry. The strategies rely not on material deposition control but rather on progressively compensating layer after layer for irregularities forming on the surface. This represents an important step toward the development and future commercialization of EP3D printing.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.



Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the EP3D printing process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of the transfusing process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Failed attempts to perform EP3D printing using transfuse belt material as intermediate substrate: (a) Toner not fused to final substrate after going through fuser, (b) toner fused to the intermediate substrate while preheating to 130 °C, and (c) sample got caught in the fuser at layer 6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Transfuse belt material after being used as intermediate substrate, (b) 14-layer sample, and (c) 100-layer sample

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Ra evolution for 100-layer sample fused using transfuse belt material as intermediate substrate and compared to readings from samples using Mylar as intermediate substrate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

100-layer samples constructed using Mylar as intermediate substrate: (a) 1 toner (M) at 100% fill and (b) 2 toner (CM) at 100% fill

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of measured profiles for 100-layer samples: (top) 2 toner produced with Mylar interface and (bottom) 1 toner using belt interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Flow diagram of the simulation algorithm with compensation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Simulated profiles of force and sample generated without compensation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Simulated profiles of force and sample generated with compensation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison on Ra for 30 layers from simulated data with no compensation, with compensation and the measurements on sample fused face down

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Imaging set up with Point Grey camera

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Images of 100-layer 2-toner sample: (a) Original, (b) grayscale, histogram adjusted, and (c) compensation image extracted

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Detailed image of the edge detection approach: (a) Original image illuminated from the bottom, (b) edges detected for this image only, (c) edges from eight images (eight illumination angles) fused, and (d) compensation image after applying morphological operators

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

(a) 30-layer sample fused face up imaged with a flatbed scanner, (b) 22.3 × 14.9 mm section of the 30-layer sample imaged using GelSight, (c) 8 × 8 mm detail, and (d) 3D reconstruction of the detail area




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In